Wintertime supercell thunderstorms in a subtropical environment: A diagnostic study

Chung Chieh Wang, George Tai Jen Chen, Shan Chien Yang, Hung Chi Chou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The present study documents the environment, initiation, and evolution of three isolated supercell storms on 19 December 2002, as the first case near Taiwan reported in the literature, mainly using radar data and manual and gridded analyses. In a subtropical environment, the supercells occurred behind a winter cold front that provided a large west-southwesterly vertical wind shear of 6.4 a 10-3 s-1 at 0-3 km. This combined with weak-to-moderate instability (CAPE 887 J kg-1) above the shallow surface cold air to yield a favorable environment for supercells. An approaching upper-level jet (ULJ) at 200 hPa also provided strong shear through deep layers farther aloft. Prior to storm initiation, significant daytime solar heating occurred over the mountain slopes along the coast of southeastern China, leading to development of local circulation and onshore/upslope winds, resulting in convergence and uplifting. Three storms were initiated about 80 km inland around 1400 LST near the peaks of local terrain with a northeast-southwest alignment. After formation, the three storms evolved into isolated supercells and each experienced multiple splits. The right-moving storms were usually stronger than left-moving ones and traveled eastward rapidly at about 18 m s-1 across the Taiwan Strait. The storms reached their maximum strength over the strait where low-level shear intensified during the day due to cold air surge. The northern storm also registered a peak reflectivity of 72 dBZ, the strongest ever recorded by any radar in Taiwan. Eventually, the three supercell storms made landfall over Taiwan, producing swaths of rain, hail, and property damages. Before they diminished after midnight, each of the three storms had lasted for about 10 h and propagated for over 550 km.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)366-390
Number of pages25
JournalMonthly Weather Review
Volume137
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Apr 15

Fingerprint

supercell
thunderstorm
cold air
strait
radar
hail
cold front
wind shear
reflectivity
damage
mountain
coast

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science

Cite this

Wintertime supercell thunderstorms in a subtropical environment : A diagnostic study. / Wang, Chung Chieh; Chen, George Tai Jen; Yang, Shan Chien; Chou, Hung Chi.

In: Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 137, No. 1, 15.04.2009, p. 366-390.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wang, Chung Chieh ; Chen, George Tai Jen ; Yang, Shan Chien ; Chou, Hung Chi. / Wintertime supercell thunderstorms in a subtropical environment : A diagnostic study. In: Monthly Weather Review. 2009 ; Vol. 137, No. 1. pp. 366-390.
@article{68a9d12e15ee46ea8cd65f3102ef7fca,
title = "Wintertime supercell thunderstorms in a subtropical environment: A diagnostic study",
abstract = "The present study documents the environment, initiation, and evolution of three isolated supercell storms on 19 December 2002, as the first case near Taiwan reported in the literature, mainly using radar data and manual and gridded analyses. In a subtropical environment, the supercells occurred behind a winter cold front that provided a large west-southwesterly vertical wind shear of 6.4 a 10-3 s-1 at 0-3 km. This combined with weak-to-moderate instability (CAPE 887 J kg-1) above the shallow surface cold air to yield a favorable environment for supercells. An approaching upper-level jet (ULJ) at 200 hPa also provided strong shear through deep layers farther aloft. Prior to storm initiation, significant daytime solar heating occurred over the mountain slopes along the coast of southeastern China, leading to development of local circulation and onshore/upslope winds, resulting in convergence and uplifting. Three storms were initiated about 80 km inland around 1400 LST near the peaks of local terrain with a northeast-southwest alignment. After formation, the three storms evolved into isolated supercells and each experienced multiple splits. The right-moving storms were usually stronger than left-moving ones and traveled eastward rapidly at about 18 m s-1 across the Taiwan Strait. The storms reached their maximum strength over the strait where low-level shear intensified during the day due to cold air surge. The northern storm also registered a peak reflectivity of 72 dBZ, the strongest ever recorded by any radar in Taiwan. Eventually, the three supercell storms made landfall over Taiwan, producing swaths of rain, hail, and property damages. Before they diminished after midnight, each of the three storms had lasted for about 10 h and propagated for over 550 km.",
author = "Wang, {Chung Chieh} and Chen, {George Tai Jen} and Yang, {Shan Chien} and Chou, {Hung Chi}",
year = "2009",
month = "4",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1175/2008MWR2492.1",
language = "English",
volume = "137",
pages = "366--390",
journal = "Monthly Weather Review",
issn = "0027-0644",
publisher = "American Meteorological Society",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Wintertime supercell thunderstorms in a subtropical environment

T2 - A diagnostic study

AU - Wang, Chung Chieh

AU - Chen, George Tai Jen

AU - Yang, Shan Chien

AU - Chou, Hung Chi

PY - 2009/4/15

Y1 - 2009/4/15

N2 - The present study documents the environment, initiation, and evolution of three isolated supercell storms on 19 December 2002, as the first case near Taiwan reported in the literature, mainly using radar data and manual and gridded analyses. In a subtropical environment, the supercells occurred behind a winter cold front that provided a large west-southwesterly vertical wind shear of 6.4 a 10-3 s-1 at 0-3 km. This combined with weak-to-moderate instability (CAPE 887 J kg-1) above the shallow surface cold air to yield a favorable environment for supercells. An approaching upper-level jet (ULJ) at 200 hPa also provided strong shear through deep layers farther aloft. Prior to storm initiation, significant daytime solar heating occurred over the mountain slopes along the coast of southeastern China, leading to development of local circulation and onshore/upslope winds, resulting in convergence and uplifting. Three storms were initiated about 80 km inland around 1400 LST near the peaks of local terrain with a northeast-southwest alignment. After formation, the three storms evolved into isolated supercells and each experienced multiple splits. The right-moving storms were usually stronger than left-moving ones and traveled eastward rapidly at about 18 m s-1 across the Taiwan Strait. The storms reached their maximum strength over the strait where low-level shear intensified during the day due to cold air surge. The northern storm also registered a peak reflectivity of 72 dBZ, the strongest ever recorded by any radar in Taiwan. Eventually, the three supercell storms made landfall over Taiwan, producing swaths of rain, hail, and property damages. Before they diminished after midnight, each of the three storms had lasted for about 10 h and propagated for over 550 km.

AB - The present study documents the environment, initiation, and evolution of three isolated supercell storms on 19 December 2002, as the first case near Taiwan reported in the literature, mainly using radar data and manual and gridded analyses. In a subtropical environment, the supercells occurred behind a winter cold front that provided a large west-southwesterly vertical wind shear of 6.4 a 10-3 s-1 at 0-3 km. This combined with weak-to-moderate instability (CAPE 887 J kg-1) above the shallow surface cold air to yield a favorable environment for supercells. An approaching upper-level jet (ULJ) at 200 hPa also provided strong shear through deep layers farther aloft. Prior to storm initiation, significant daytime solar heating occurred over the mountain slopes along the coast of southeastern China, leading to development of local circulation and onshore/upslope winds, resulting in convergence and uplifting. Three storms were initiated about 80 km inland around 1400 LST near the peaks of local terrain with a northeast-southwest alignment. After formation, the three storms evolved into isolated supercells and each experienced multiple splits. The right-moving storms were usually stronger than left-moving ones and traveled eastward rapidly at about 18 m s-1 across the Taiwan Strait. The storms reached their maximum strength over the strait where low-level shear intensified during the day due to cold air surge. The northern storm also registered a peak reflectivity of 72 dBZ, the strongest ever recorded by any radar in Taiwan. Eventually, the three supercell storms made landfall over Taiwan, producing swaths of rain, hail, and property damages. Before they diminished after midnight, each of the three storms had lasted for about 10 h and propagated for over 550 km.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=64149114274&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=64149114274&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1175/2008MWR2492.1

DO - 10.1175/2008MWR2492.1

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:64149114274

VL - 137

SP - 366

EP - 390

JO - Monthly Weather Review

JF - Monthly Weather Review

SN - 0027-0644

IS - 1

ER -