Winter phytoplankton blooms in the shallow mixed layer of the South China Sea enhanced by upwelling

Chung Chi Chen, Fuh Kwo Shiah, Shi Wei Chung, Kon Kee Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

81 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal sea in the world. Previous studies, including recent intensive paleo-oceanographic studies, suggest that the SCS is sensitive to many types of physical forcing on the short-term (e.g., internal waves and tides, mesoscale eddies, typhoons, etc.), annual (e.g., monsoon), inter-annual (e.g., El Niño), and very long-term (e.g., climate change) time scales. To better understand how various types of physical forcing influence biogeochemical cycles in the water column, a time-series study was initiated. Bimonthly hydrographic surveys occupied stations in the subtropical-tropic SCS at 19°N, 118.5°E. Results suggest that the Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to April and southwesterly from May to September, have important effects on biogeochemical cycles in the upper water column. Hydrographic data showed that the mixed layer depth was much shallower in winter than in other seasons. During the winter monsoon period, the nitricline became shallower and upwelling sustained an elevated phytoplankton standing stock. Mean chlorophyll concentrations (0.65 mg Chl m- 3) in winter were 8 times higher than in summer, and the integrated primary productivity over the euphotic zone reached as high as ca. 684 mg C m- 2 day- 1 in winter. The upwelling is produced by convergence of currents in the cyclonic gyre near the Luzon Strait, where the Kuroshio intrudes. In summer the current reverses following the wind change. The nitricline is depressed as downwelling occurs off northwest Luzon, resulting in strong nutrient limitation and very low chlorophyll concentrations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-110
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Marine Systems
Volume59
Issue number1-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Jan 1

Fingerprint

South China Sea
algal blooms
mixed layer
upwelling
algal bloom
phytoplankton
monsoon
winter
biogeochemical cycle
biogeochemical cycles
chlorophyll
water column
typhoons
hydrographic survey
internal tide
marginal sea
mesoscale eddy
summer
nutrient limitation
euphotic zone

Keywords

  • Dissolved inorganic nutrient
  • Phytoplankton bloom
  • South China Sea
  • Time-series study
  • Upwelling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Aquatic Science

Cite this

Winter phytoplankton blooms in the shallow mixed layer of the South China Sea enhanced by upwelling. / Chen, Chung Chi; Shiah, Fuh Kwo; Chung, Shi Wei; Liu, Kon Kee.

In: Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 59, No. 1-2, 01.01.2006, p. 97-110.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chen, Chung Chi ; Shiah, Fuh Kwo ; Chung, Shi Wei ; Liu, Kon Kee. / Winter phytoplankton blooms in the shallow mixed layer of the South China Sea enhanced by upwelling. In: Journal of Marine Systems. 2006 ; Vol. 59, No. 1-2. pp. 97-110.
@article{c9f48f549f1d4aa682ff7aded8fd7b8a,
title = "Winter phytoplankton blooms in the shallow mixed layer of the South China Sea enhanced by upwelling",
abstract = "The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal sea in the world. Previous studies, including recent intensive paleo-oceanographic studies, suggest that the SCS is sensitive to many types of physical forcing on the short-term (e.g., internal waves and tides, mesoscale eddies, typhoons, etc.), annual (e.g., monsoon), inter-annual (e.g., El Ni{\~n}o), and very long-term (e.g., climate change) time scales. To better understand how various types of physical forcing influence biogeochemical cycles in the water column, a time-series study was initiated. Bimonthly hydrographic surveys occupied stations in the subtropical-tropic SCS at 19°N, 118.5°E. Results suggest that the Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to April and southwesterly from May to September, have important effects on biogeochemical cycles in the upper water column. Hydrographic data showed that the mixed layer depth was much shallower in winter than in other seasons. During the winter monsoon period, the nitricline became shallower and upwelling sustained an elevated phytoplankton standing stock. Mean chlorophyll concentrations (0.65 mg Chl m- 3) in winter were 8 times higher than in summer, and the integrated primary productivity over the euphotic zone reached as high as ca. 684 mg C m- 2 day- 1 in winter. The upwelling is produced by convergence of currents in the cyclonic gyre near the Luzon Strait, where the Kuroshio intrudes. In summer the current reverses following the wind change. The nitricline is depressed as downwelling occurs off northwest Luzon, resulting in strong nutrient limitation and very low chlorophyll concentrations.",
keywords = "Dissolved inorganic nutrient, Phytoplankton bloom, South China Sea, Time-series study, Upwelling",
author = "Chen, {Chung Chi} and Shiah, {Fuh Kwo} and Chung, {Shi Wei} and Liu, {Kon Kee}",
year = "2006",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.09.002",
language = "English",
volume = "59",
pages = "97--110",
journal = "Journal of Marine Systems",
issn = "0924-7963",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "1-2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Winter phytoplankton blooms in the shallow mixed layer of the South China Sea enhanced by upwelling

AU - Chen, Chung Chi

AU - Shiah, Fuh Kwo

AU - Chung, Shi Wei

AU - Liu, Kon Kee

PY - 2006/1/1

Y1 - 2006/1/1

N2 - The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal sea in the world. Previous studies, including recent intensive paleo-oceanographic studies, suggest that the SCS is sensitive to many types of physical forcing on the short-term (e.g., internal waves and tides, mesoscale eddies, typhoons, etc.), annual (e.g., monsoon), inter-annual (e.g., El Niño), and very long-term (e.g., climate change) time scales. To better understand how various types of physical forcing influence biogeochemical cycles in the water column, a time-series study was initiated. Bimonthly hydrographic surveys occupied stations in the subtropical-tropic SCS at 19°N, 118.5°E. Results suggest that the Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to April and southwesterly from May to September, have important effects on biogeochemical cycles in the upper water column. Hydrographic data showed that the mixed layer depth was much shallower in winter than in other seasons. During the winter monsoon period, the nitricline became shallower and upwelling sustained an elevated phytoplankton standing stock. Mean chlorophyll concentrations (0.65 mg Chl m- 3) in winter were 8 times higher than in summer, and the integrated primary productivity over the euphotic zone reached as high as ca. 684 mg C m- 2 day- 1 in winter. The upwelling is produced by convergence of currents in the cyclonic gyre near the Luzon Strait, where the Kuroshio intrudes. In summer the current reverses following the wind change. The nitricline is depressed as downwelling occurs off northwest Luzon, resulting in strong nutrient limitation and very low chlorophyll concentrations.

AB - The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal sea in the world. Previous studies, including recent intensive paleo-oceanographic studies, suggest that the SCS is sensitive to many types of physical forcing on the short-term (e.g., internal waves and tides, mesoscale eddies, typhoons, etc.), annual (e.g., monsoon), inter-annual (e.g., El Niño), and very long-term (e.g., climate change) time scales. To better understand how various types of physical forcing influence biogeochemical cycles in the water column, a time-series study was initiated. Bimonthly hydrographic surveys occupied stations in the subtropical-tropic SCS at 19°N, 118.5°E. Results suggest that the Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to April and southwesterly from May to September, have important effects on biogeochemical cycles in the upper water column. Hydrographic data showed that the mixed layer depth was much shallower in winter than in other seasons. During the winter monsoon period, the nitricline became shallower and upwelling sustained an elevated phytoplankton standing stock. Mean chlorophyll concentrations (0.65 mg Chl m- 3) in winter were 8 times higher than in summer, and the integrated primary productivity over the euphotic zone reached as high as ca. 684 mg C m- 2 day- 1 in winter. The upwelling is produced by convergence of currents in the cyclonic gyre near the Luzon Strait, where the Kuroshio intrudes. In summer the current reverses following the wind change. The nitricline is depressed as downwelling occurs off northwest Luzon, resulting in strong nutrient limitation and very low chlorophyll concentrations.

KW - Dissolved inorganic nutrient

KW - Phytoplankton bloom

KW - South China Sea

KW - Time-series study

KW - Upwelling

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=31044446844&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=31044446844&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.09.002

DO - 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.09.002

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:31044446844

VL - 59

SP - 97

EP - 110

JO - Journal of Marine Systems

JF - Journal of Marine Systems

SN - 0924-7963

IS - 1-2

ER -