Wild Bitter Melon Leaf Extract Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Inflammation: Identification of Active Compounds through Bioassay-Guided Isolation

Tzung Hsun Tsai, Wen Cheng Huang, How Ting Ying, Yueh Hsiung Kuo, Chien Chang Shen, Yin Ku Lin, Po Jung Tsai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Porphyromonas gingivalis has been identified as one of the major periodontal pathogens. Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify the anti-inflammatory active compounds using heat-killed P. gingivalis-stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells in vitro. Five major fractions were collected from the ethanol/ethyl acetate extract of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) leaves and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity against P. gingivalis. Among the test fractions, Fraction 5 effectively decreased heat-killed P. gingivalis-induced interleukin (IL)-8 and was subjected to separation and purification by using chromatographic techniques. Two cucurbitane triterpenoids were isolated from the active fraction and identified as 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol (1) and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al (2) by comparing spectral data. Treatments of both compounds in vitro potently suppressed P. gingivalis-induced IL-8, IL-6, and IL-1β levels and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in THP-1 cells. Both compounds effectively inhibited the mRNA levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in P. gingivalis-stimulated gingival tissue of mice. These findings imply that 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al could be used for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against P. gingivalis infections.

Original languageEnglish
Article number454
JournalMolecules
Volume21
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Apr 1

Fingerprint

Momordica charantia
interleukins
Porphyromonas gingivalis
bioassay
Bioassay
Interleukin-8
Biological Assay
leaves
Purification
Interleukin-6
isolation
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Inflammation
triols
Pathogens
Cyclooxygenase 2
Fractionation
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Interleukin-1
dienes

Keywords

  • Anti-inflammation
  • Cucurbitane triterpenoid
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis
  • Wild bitter melon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

Cite this

Wild Bitter Melon Leaf Extract Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Inflammation : Identification of Active Compounds through Bioassay-Guided Isolation. / Tsai, Tzung Hsun; Huang, Wen Cheng; Ying, How Ting; Kuo, Yueh Hsiung; Shen, Chien Chang; Lin, Yin Ku; Tsai, Po Jung.

In: Molecules, Vol. 21, No. 4, 454, 01.04.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tsai, Tzung Hsun ; Huang, Wen Cheng ; Ying, How Ting ; Kuo, Yueh Hsiung ; Shen, Chien Chang ; Lin, Yin Ku ; Tsai, Po Jung. / Wild Bitter Melon Leaf Extract Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Inflammation : Identification of Active Compounds through Bioassay-Guided Isolation. In: Molecules. 2016 ; Vol. 21, No. 4.
@article{184260f787bd40bc88a9a0b5059224ed,
title = "Wild Bitter Melon Leaf Extract Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Inflammation: Identification of Active Compounds through Bioassay-Guided Isolation",
abstract = "Porphyromonas gingivalis has been identified as one of the major periodontal pathogens. Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify the anti-inflammatory active compounds using heat-killed P. gingivalis-stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells in vitro. Five major fractions were collected from the ethanol/ethyl acetate extract of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) leaves and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity against P. gingivalis. Among the test fractions, Fraction 5 effectively decreased heat-killed P. gingivalis-induced interleukin (IL)-8 and was subjected to separation and purification by using chromatographic techniques. Two cucurbitane triterpenoids were isolated from the active fraction and identified as 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol (1) and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al (2) by comparing spectral data. Treatments of both compounds in vitro potently suppressed P. gingivalis-induced IL-8, IL-6, and IL-1β levels and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in THP-1 cells. Both compounds effectively inhibited the mRNA levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in P. gingivalis-stimulated gingival tissue of mice. These findings imply that 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al could be used for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against P. gingivalis infections.",
keywords = "Anti-inflammation, Cucurbitane triterpenoid, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Wild bitter melon",
author = "Tsai, {Tzung Hsun} and Huang, {Wen Cheng} and Ying, {How Ting} and Kuo, {Yueh Hsiung} and Shen, {Chien Chang} and Lin, {Yin Ku} and Tsai, {Po Jung}",
year = "2016",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3390/molecules21040454",
language = "English",
volume = "21",
journal = "Molecules",
issn = "1420-3049",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Wild Bitter Melon Leaf Extract Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Inflammation

T2 - Identification of Active Compounds through Bioassay-Guided Isolation

AU - Tsai, Tzung Hsun

AU - Huang, Wen Cheng

AU - Ying, How Ting

AU - Kuo, Yueh Hsiung

AU - Shen, Chien Chang

AU - Lin, Yin Ku

AU - Tsai, Po Jung

PY - 2016/4/1

Y1 - 2016/4/1

N2 - Porphyromonas gingivalis has been identified as one of the major periodontal pathogens. Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify the anti-inflammatory active compounds using heat-killed P. gingivalis-stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells in vitro. Five major fractions were collected from the ethanol/ethyl acetate extract of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) leaves and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity against P. gingivalis. Among the test fractions, Fraction 5 effectively decreased heat-killed P. gingivalis-induced interleukin (IL)-8 and was subjected to separation and purification by using chromatographic techniques. Two cucurbitane triterpenoids were isolated from the active fraction and identified as 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol (1) and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al (2) by comparing spectral data. Treatments of both compounds in vitro potently suppressed P. gingivalis-induced IL-8, IL-6, and IL-1β levels and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in THP-1 cells. Both compounds effectively inhibited the mRNA levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in P. gingivalis-stimulated gingival tissue of mice. These findings imply that 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al could be used for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against P. gingivalis infections.

AB - Porphyromonas gingivalis has been identified as one of the major periodontal pathogens. Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify the anti-inflammatory active compounds using heat-killed P. gingivalis-stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells in vitro. Five major fractions were collected from the ethanol/ethyl acetate extract of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) leaves and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity against P. gingivalis. Among the test fractions, Fraction 5 effectively decreased heat-killed P. gingivalis-induced interleukin (IL)-8 and was subjected to separation and purification by using chromatographic techniques. Two cucurbitane triterpenoids were isolated from the active fraction and identified as 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol (1) and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al (2) by comparing spectral data. Treatments of both compounds in vitro potently suppressed P. gingivalis-induced IL-8, IL-6, and IL-1β levels and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in THP-1 cells. Both compounds effectively inhibited the mRNA levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in P. gingivalis-stimulated gingival tissue of mice. These findings imply that 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al could be used for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against P. gingivalis infections.

KW - Anti-inflammation

KW - Cucurbitane triterpenoid

KW - Porphyromonas gingivalis

KW - Wild bitter melon

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84966340186&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84966340186&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/molecules21040454

DO - 10.3390/molecules21040454

M3 - Article

C2 - 27058519

AN - SCOPUS:84966340186

VL - 21

JO - Molecules

JF - Molecules

SN - 1420-3049

IS - 4

M1 - 454

ER -