What Puts Pupils at Risk? An Analysis of Classroom Teachers' Judgments of Pupils' Behavior

James M. Kauffman, Kathleen L.H. Wong, John Wills Lloyd, Li Yu Hung, Patricia L. Pullen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)


Fifty-four general classroom teachers completed a brief demographic questionnaire and a modified version of the SBS Inventory of Teacher Social Behavior Standards and Expectations, on which they were asked to indicate whether the absence of certain adaptive behaviors or presence of certain maladaptive behaviors places a pupil at risk. Significant relationships were found between teachers’ standards and expectations for behavior and their judgments of risk. Teachers judging more adaptive behaviors to be critical and more maladaptive behaviors to be unacceptable also judged the absence of more adaptive behaviors and presence of more maladaptive behaviors as placing a pupil at risk. Not all failures to exhibit critically important adaptive behavior and not all unacceptable behaviors were judged as placing a pupil at risk; teachers discriminated between behaviors not meeting their personal standards and expectations and those likely to heighten risk. Implications for research and practice were discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7-16
Number of pages10
JournalRemedial and Special Education
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1991 Sep
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this