Using virtual reality to facilitate learners’ creative self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation in an EFL classroom

Yu Ju Lin, Hung chun Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Citations (Scopus)


Following a mixed-methods approach, this study investigated the effect of a virtual reality (VR) creative project on EFL learners’ creative self-efficacy as well as their intrinsic motivation toward using VR technology. A class of 39 university students in Taiwan participated in the VR-supported creative project with the instructor’s guidance step by step. A creative self-efficacy student scale, an intrinsic motivation inventory and an open-ended survey were given to the students to explore how the project might have influenced their efficacy for creativity and learning of English. Results indicate that the VR-supported project facilitated the students’ efficacy for creative thinking in particular; yet, their efficacy for creative production as well as for their own competence while facing negative feedback did not change significantly. Moreover, those who had high creative self-efficacy also felt less pressure and tension toward this VR-supported project than their counterparts with low creative self-efficacy. Furthermore, working on the VR-supported project was perceived by the students to be a refreshing and relaxing learning experience that also benefited their learning of English. Based on the research findings, pedagogical implications are discussed with regard to how VR technology can be effectively integrated into an English classroom to facilitate students’ creative self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4487-4505
Number of pages19
JournalEducation and Information Technologies
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jul


  • Creative self-efficacy
  • Creativity
  • English as a foreign language (EFL)
  • Immersive learning
  • Intrinsic motivation
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Library and Information Sciences


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