Using mastery learning theory to develop task-centered hands-on STEM learning of Arduino-based educational robotics: psychomotor performance and perception by a convergent parallel mixed method

Chi Cheng Chang, Yiching Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This study aims to explore psychomotor performance and perception on task-centered hands-on STEM learning of educational robotics. The study adopted a convergent parallel mixed method to gather both quantitative and qualitative data in the same period of time. Participants were 42 tenth-grade students (25 male students and 17 female students) from one class at some senior high school. They were divided into 21 teams with 2 members in each team. The results showed that one-sample t-tests in each dimension of psychomotor performance all reached a significant level. Programming showed highest psychomotor performance, and sailboat design and mechanical assembly followed sequentially. One-sample t-tests for each dimension on perception all reached the significant level. Teacher teaching reached the highest perception, and learning material, learning difficulty, administrative service, learning activity, and course schedule followed sequentially. This study confirms that task-centered hands-on STEM learning approach is effective to students’ educational robotics learning. Finally, the study proposes the implication and recommendation for robotics education.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInteractive Learning Environments
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2020 Jan 1



  • Educational robotics
  • hands-on task
  • psychomotor
  • task-Centered learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Computer Science Applications

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