Use of activity schedule to promote independent performance of individuals with autism and other intellectual disabilities: A review

Takanori Koyama, Hui Ting Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

44 Citations (Scopus)


A literature review was conducted on the effectiveness of activity schedules. Twenty three studies that a) were peer-reviewed, b) were experimental, c) implemented activity schedule as a primary intervention, d) incorporated multiple activities, and e) aimed to teach learners to self-manage individual schedules were included in the review. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of activity schedules for promoting independence and self-management skills for a broad range of individuals with intellectual disabilities. An increase in engagement and on-task behavior was the most frequently cited outcome, followed by independent task initiation or transition and self-scheduling. Failure to include social validity measures and caregivers as interventionists were discussed. A corpus of the reviewed studies supports applications of activity schedule in school and (group) home settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2235-2242
Number of pages8
JournalResearch in Developmental Disabilities
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Nov 1



  • Activity schedule
  • Autism
  • Independence
  • Self-management
  • Visual supports

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology

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