Urinary incontinence among taiwanese women: An outpatient study of prevalence, comorbidity, risk factors, and quality of life

Yueh Chi Tsai*, Chieh Hsing Liu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


The objective of this study was to evaluate comorbidity and risk factors associated with female urinary incontinence and to assess quality of life for women with different types of urinary incontinence. Subjects included 551 consecutive females who attended the outpatient clinic from 9 March to 8 July 2006 and did not have a chief complaint of incontinence. A four-item incontinence questionnaire and a Chinese version of the Incontinence-Quality of Life (I-QOL) questionnaire were completed in the waiting room. Patient characteristics and medical conditions were summarized from outpatient electronic databases. A total of 371 females were included for statistical analysis. Among them, 114 patients (30.7%) did not indicate any urinary incontinence, while 257 (69.3%) patients indicated symptoms of urge incontinence, stress incontinence, or mixed incontinence. Comorbidities significantly associated with incontinence included osteoarthritis (P = 0.001), peptic ulcer disease (P = 0.031), obesity (P < 0.001), and cardiac disease (P < 0.001). After multiple logistic regression analysis, obesity (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.94-6.98) and postmenstrual status (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.35-3.50) were found to be risk factors of incontinence (P <0.001). Mixed incontinence patients exhibited the least satisfaction in quality of life, while no significant differences were observed between patients with urge incontinence and stress incontinence. In conclusion, the incidence of urinary incontinence may be greater in the outpatient population than previously thought. Osteoarthritis, peptic ulcer disease, and cardiac disease are more common in women with urinary incontinence, obesity and postmenopausal status appear predictive of incontinence, and women with mixed incontinence exhibit the least satisfying quality of life.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)795-803
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Urology and Nephrology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • Comorbidity
  • Quality of life
  • Risk factors
  • Urinary incontinence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Urology


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