Uncovering Malaysian Secondary School Students’ Academic Hardiness in Science, Conceptions of Learning Science, and Science Learning Self-Efficacy: a Structural Equation Modelling Analysis

Seng Yue Wong, Jyh Chong Liang, Chin Chung Tsai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between academic hardiness in science, conceptions of learning science, and science learning self-efficacy among Malaysian middle school students. The respondents were 320 eighth-grade students from two selected Malaysian middle schools. Three questionnaires were used for this survey: Academic Hardiness in Science (AHS) regarding “commitment,” Conceptions of Learning Science (COLS), including “memorizing,” “calculating and practicing,” and “understanding and seeing in a new way,” and Science Learning Self-Efficacy (SLSE), consisting of “cognition,” “practical work,” “everyday application,” and “science communication.” These three questionnaires were validated and found to be reliable for measuring students’ AHS, COLS, and SLSE. Pearson’s correlation findings indicated that AHS was significantly and positively correlated to all the factors in COLS and SLSE, and all the factors in COLS were significantly and positively correlated to all the factors in SLSE. The relationships among AHS, COLS, and SLSE were then identified by the structural equation model technique. Students with a high commitment to learning science, and who perceived learning science as understanding and seeing in a new way are prone to have confidence at all levels of science learning self-efficacy.

Original languageEnglish
JournalResearch in Science Education
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2019 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes



  • Conceptions
  • Hardiness
  • Science learning
  • Self-efficacy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education

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