Transitions in aggression among children: Effects of gender and exposure to online violence

Jeng Tung Chiang, Fong Ching Chang*, Kun Wei Lee

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This study assessed aggression statuses and transitions among children and examined the effects that gender and exposure to online violence can exert on aggression. A sample of 2155 children recruited from 30 primary schools in Taipei, Taiwan completed surveys in both 2015 (5th grade) and 2016 (6th grade). Latent transition analysis (LTA) was performed, and the results identified three latent statuses of aggression: “None,” “School aggression,” and “Cyber-aggression.” About 10% of children behaved aggressively. When in their 5th-grade year, boys were more likely than girls to be a school aggressor (6.48% vs. 4.04%) or a cyber-aggressor (2.37% vs. 1.64%). Among boys who originally were considered to be a school aggressor, 36.19% remained so, 58% renounced their school aggression status, and 5.81% became a cyber-aggressor. Among girls who originally were considered to be a cyber-aggressor, 22.23% remained so, 68.29% renounced their cyber-aggression status, and 9.48% became a school aggressor. Controlling for student's academic performance, household income, and parents' marital status, exposure to online violence was a statistically significant predictor of aggression status for both boys and girls. Children's exposure to online violence appeared to increase the risk of aggression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)310-319
Number of pages10
JournalAggressive Behavior
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021 May


  • aggression
  • children
  • exposure to online violence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • General Psychology


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