In Kaohsiung, a metropolitan city in Taiwan at high risk of dengue epidemic, weather factors combined with an accidental petrochemical gas explosion (PGE) may affect mosquito-human dynamics in 2014. Generalized estimating equations with lagged-time Poisson regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of meteorological/mosquito parameters and PGE on dengue incidences (2000-2014) in Kaohsiung. Increased minimum temperatures rendered a 2- and 3-month lagging interactive effect on higher dengue risks, and higher rainfall exhibited a 1- and 2-month lagging interplay effect on lower risks (interaction, P ≤ 0.001). The dengue risk was significantly higher than that in a large-scale outbreak year (2002) from week 5 after PGE accident in 2014 (2.9-8.3-fold for weeks 5-22). The greatest cross-correlation of dengue incidences in the PGE-affected and PGE-neighboring districts was identified at weeks 1 after the PGE (r s = 0.956, P < 0.001). Compared with the reference years, the combined effect of minimum temperature, rainfall, and PGE accounted for 75.1% of excess dengue risk in 2014. In conclusion, time-lagging interplay effects from minimum temperature and rainfall may be respectively associated with early and near environments facilitating dengue transmission. Events that interact with weather and influence mosquito-human dynamics, such as PGEs, should not be ignored in dengue prevention and control.
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