THz conductivities of indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers as a graded-refractive-index structure

Chan Shan Yang, Mao Hsiang Lin, Osamu Wada, Peichen Yu, Osamu Wada, Ci Ling Pan

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26 Citations (Scopus)


Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanowhiskers with attractive electrical and anti-reflection properties were prepared by the glancing-angle electron-beam evaporation technique. Structural and crystalline properties of such nanostructures were examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Their frequency-dependent complex conductivities, refractive indices and absorption coefficients have been characterized with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), in which the nanowhiskers were considered as a graded-refractive-index (GRIN) structure instead of the usual thin film model. The electrical properties of ITO GRIN structures are analyzed and fitted well with Drude-Smith model in the 0.2~2.0 THz band. Our results indicate that the ITO nanowhiskers and its bottom layer atop the substrate exhibit longer carrier scattering times than ITO thin films. This signifies that ITO nanowhiskers have an excellent crystallinity with large grain size, consistent with X-ray data. Besides, we show a strong backscattering effect and fully carrier localization in the ITO nanowhiskers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)A441-A451
JournalOptics Express
Issue number104
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jul 2
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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