The XMM-Newton serendipitous survey

X. Barcons, F. J. Carrera, M. T. Ceballos, M. J. Page, J. Bussons-Gordo, A. Corral, J. Ebrero, S. Mateos, J. A. Tedds, M. G. Watson, D. Baskill, M. Birkinshaw, T. Boller, N. Borisov, M. Bremer, G. E. Bromage, H. Brunner, A. Caccianiga, C. S. Crawford, M. S. CropperR. Della Ceca, P. Derry, A. C. Fabian, P. Guillout, Y. Hashimoto, G. Hasinger, B. J.M. Hassall, G. Lamer, N. S. Loaring, T. MacCacaro, K. O. Mason, R. G. McMahon, L. Mirioni, J. P.D. Mittaz, C. Motch, I. Negueruela, J. P. Osborne, F. Panessa, I. Pérez-Fournon, J. P. Pye, T. P. Roberts, S. Rosen, N. Schartel, N. Schurch, A. Schwope, P. Severgnini, R. Sharp, G. C. Stewart, G. Szokoly, A. Ullán, M. J. Ward, R. S. Warwick, P. J. Wheatley, N. A. Webb, D. Worrall, W. Yuan, H. Ziaeepour

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

37 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aims.X-ray sources at intermediate fluxes (a few 10 erg cm s) with a sky density of ∼100 deg are responsible for a significant fraction of the cosmic X-ray background at various energies below 10 keV. The aim of this paper is to provide an unbiased and quantitative description of the X-ray source population at these fluxes and in various X-ray energy bands.Methods.We present the XMM-Newton Medium sensitivity Survey (XMS), including a total of 318 X-ray sources found among the serendipitous content of 25 XMM-Newton target fields. The XMS comprises four largely overlapping source samples selected at soft (0.5-2 keV), intermediate (0.5-4.5 keV), hard (2-10 keV) and ultra-hard (4.5-7.5 keV) bands, the first three of them being flux-limited.Results.We report on the optical identification of the XMS samples, complete to 85-95%. At the flux levels sampled by the XMS we find that the X-ray sky is largely dominated by Active Galactic Nuclei. The fraction of stars in soft X-ray selected samples is below 10%, and only a few per cent for hard selected samples. We find that the fraction of optically obscured objects in the AGN population stays constant at around 15-20% for soft and intermediate band selected X-ray sources, over 2 decades of flux. The fraction of obscured objects amongst the AGN population is larger (∼35-45%) in the hard or ultra-hard selected samples, and constant across a similarly wide flux range. The distribution in X-ray-to-optical flux ratio is a strong function of the selection band, with a larger fraction of sources with high values in hard selected samples. Sources with X-ray-to-optical flux ratios in excess of 10 are dominated by obscured AGN, but with a significant contribution from unobscured AGN. .

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1191-1203
Number of pages13
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume476
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Dec 1

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XMM-Newton telescope
newton
x rays
sensitivity
sky
guy wires
active galactic nuclei
erg
energy bands
energy
stars

Keywords

  • Galaxies: active
  • X-rays: galaxies
  • X-rays: general
  • X-rays: stars

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Barcons, X., Carrera, F. J., Ceballos, M. T., Page, M. J., Bussons-Gordo, J., Corral, A., ... Ziaeepour, H. (2007). The XMM-Newton serendipitous survey. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 476(3), 1191-1203. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20077606

The XMM-Newton serendipitous survey. / Barcons, X.; Carrera, F. J.; Ceballos, M. T.; Page, M. J.; Bussons-Gordo, J.; Corral, A.; Ebrero, J.; Mateos, S.; Tedds, J. A.; Watson, M. G.; Baskill, D.; Birkinshaw, M.; Boller, T.; Borisov, N.; Bremer, M.; Bromage, G. E.; Brunner, H.; Caccianiga, A.; Crawford, C. S.; Cropper, M. S.; Della Ceca, R.; Derry, P.; Fabian, A. C.; Guillout, P.; Hashimoto, Y.; Hasinger, G.; Hassall, B. J.M.; Lamer, G.; Loaring, N. S.; MacCacaro, T.; Mason, K. O.; McMahon, R. G.; Mirioni, L.; Mittaz, J. P.D.; Motch, C.; Negueruela, I.; Osborne, J. P.; Panessa, F.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Pye, J. P.; Roberts, T. P.; Rosen, S.; Schartel, N.; Schurch, N.; Schwope, A.; Severgnini, P.; Sharp, R.; Stewart, G. C.; Szokoly, G.; Ullán, A.; Ward, M. J.; Warwick, R. S.; Wheatley, P. J.; Webb, N. A.; Worrall, D.; Yuan, W.; Ziaeepour, H.

In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 476, No. 3, 01.12.2007, p. 1191-1203.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Barcons, X, Carrera, FJ, Ceballos, MT, Page, MJ, Bussons-Gordo, J, Corral, A, Ebrero, J, Mateos, S, Tedds, JA, Watson, MG, Baskill, D, Birkinshaw, M, Boller, T, Borisov, N, Bremer, M, Bromage, GE, Brunner, H, Caccianiga, A, Crawford, CS, Cropper, MS, Della Ceca, R, Derry, P, Fabian, AC, Guillout, P, Hashimoto, Y, Hasinger, G, Hassall, BJM, Lamer, G, Loaring, NS, MacCacaro, T, Mason, KO, McMahon, RG, Mirioni, L, Mittaz, JPD, Motch, C, Negueruela, I, Osborne, JP, Panessa, F, Pérez-Fournon, I, Pye, JP, Roberts, TP, Rosen, S, Schartel, N, Schurch, N, Schwope, A, Severgnini, P, Sharp, R, Stewart, GC, Szokoly, G, Ullán, A, Ward, MJ, Warwick, RS, Wheatley, PJ, Webb, NA, Worrall, D, Yuan, W & Ziaeepour, H 2007, 'The XMM-Newton serendipitous survey', Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 476, no. 3, pp. 1191-1203. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20077606
Barcons X, Carrera FJ, Ceballos MT, Page MJ, Bussons-Gordo J, Corral A et al. The XMM-Newton serendipitous survey. Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2007 Dec 1;476(3):1191-1203. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20077606
Barcons, X. ; Carrera, F. J. ; Ceballos, M. T. ; Page, M. J. ; Bussons-Gordo, J. ; Corral, A. ; Ebrero, J. ; Mateos, S. ; Tedds, J. A. ; Watson, M. G. ; Baskill, D. ; Birkinshaw, M. ; Boller, T. ; Borisov, N. ; Bremer, M. ; Bromage, G. E. ; Brunner, H. ; Caccianiga, A. ; Crawford, C. S. ; Cropper, M. S. ; Della Ceca, R. ; Derry, P. ; Fabian, A. C. ; Guillout, P. ; Hashimoto, Y. ; Hasinger, G. ; Hassall, B. J.M. ; Lamer, G. ; Loaring, N. S. ; MacCacaro, T. ; Mason, K. O. ; McMahon, R. G. ; Mirioni, L. ; Mittaz, J. P.D. ; Motch, C. ; Negueruela, I. ; Osborne, J. P. ; Panessa, F. ; Pérez-Fournon, I. ; Pye, J. P. ; Roberts, T. P. ; Rosen, S. ; Schartel, N. ; Schurch, N. ; Schwope, A. ; Severgnini, P. ; Sharp, R. ; Stewart, G. C. ; Szokoly, G. ; Ullán, A. ; Ward, M. J. ; Warwick, R. S. ; Wheatley, P. J. ; Webb, N. A. ; Worrall, D. ; Yuan, W. ; Ziaeepour, H. / The XMM-Newton serendipitous survey. In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2007 ; Vol. 476, No. 3. pp. 1191-1203.
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abstract = "Aims.X-ray sources at intermediate fluxes (a few 10 erg cm s) with a sky density of ∼100 deg are responsible for a significant fraction of the cosmic X-ray background at various energies below 10 keV. The aim of this paper is to provide an unbiased and quantitative description of the X-ray source population at these fluxes and in various X-ray energy bands.Methods.We present the XMM-Newton Medium sensitivity Survey (XMS), including a total of 318 X-ray sources found among the serendipitous content of 25 XMM-Newton target fields. The XMS comprises four largely overlapping source samples selected at soft (0.5-2 keV), intermediate (0.5-4.5 keV), hard (2-10 keV) and ultra-hard (4.5-7.5 keV) bands, the first three of them being flux-limited.Results.We report on the optical identification of the XMS samples, complete to 85-95{\%}. At the flux levels sampled by the XMS we find that the X-ray sky is largely dominated by Active Galactic Nuclei. The fraction of stars in soft X-ray selected samples is below 10{\%}, and only a few per cent for hard selected samples. We find that the fraction of optically obscured objects in the AGN population stays constant at around 15-20{\%} for soft and intermediate band selected X-ray sources, over 2 decades of flux. The fraction of obscured objects amongst the AGN population is larger (∼35-45{\%}) in the hard or ultra-hard selected samples, and constant across a similarly wide flux range. The distribution in X-ray-to-optical flux ratio is a strong function of the selection band, with a larger fraction of sources with high values in hard selected samples. Sources with X-ray-to-optical flux ratios in excess of 10 are dominated by obscured AGN, but with a significant contribution from unobscured AGN. .",
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author = "X. Barcons and Carrera, {F. J.} and Ceballos, {M. T.} and Page, {M. J.} and J. Bussons-Gordo and A. Corral and J. Ebrero and S. Mateos and Tedds, {J. A.} and Watson, {M. G.} and D. Baskill and M. Birkinshaw and T. Boller and N. Borisov and M. Bremer and Bromage, {G. E.} and H. Brunner and A. Caccianiga and Crawford, {C. S.} and Cropper, {M. S.} and {Della Ceca}, R. and P. Derry and Fabian, {A. C.} and P. Guillout and Y. Hashimoto and G. Hasinger and Hassall, {B. J.M.} and G. Lamer and Loaring, {N. S.} and T. MacCacaro and Mason, {K. O.} and McMahon, {R. G.} and L. Mirioni and Mittaz, {J. P.D.} and C. Motch and I. Negueruela and Osborne, {J. P.} and F. Panessa and I. P{\'e}rez-Fournon and Pye, {J. P.} and Roberts, {T. P.} and S. Rosen and N. Schartel and N. Schurch and A. Schwope and P. Severgnini and R. Sharp and Stewart, {G. C.} and G. Szokoly and A. Ull{\'a}n and Ward, {M. J.} and Warwick, {R. S.} and Wheatley, {P. J.} and Webb, {N. A.} and D. Worrall and W. Yuan and H. Ziaeepour",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - The XMM-Newton serendipitous survey

AU - Barcons, X.

AU - Carrera, F. J.

AU - Ceballos, M. T.

AU - Page, M. J.

AU - Bussons-Gordo, J.

AU - Corral, A.

AU - Ebrero, J.

AU - Mateos, S.

AU - Tedds, J. A.

AU - Watson, M. G.

AU - Baskill, D.

AU - Birkinshaw, M.

AU - Boller, T.

AU - Borisov, N.

AU - Bremer, M.

AU - Bromage, G. E.

AU - Brunner, H.

AU - Caccianiga, A.

AU - Crawford, C. S.

AU - Cropper, M. S.

AU - Della Ceca, R.

AU - Derry, P.

AU - Fabian, A. C.

AU - Guillout, P.

AU - Hashimoto, Y.

AU - Hasinger, G.

AU - Hassall, B. J.M.

AU - Lamer, G.

AU - Loaring, N. S.

AU - MacCacaro, T.

AU - Mason, K. O.

AU - McMahon, R. G.

AU - Mirioni, L.

AU - Mittaz, J. P.D.

AU - Motch, C.

AU - Negueruela, I.

AU - Osborne, J. P.

AU - Panessa, F.

AU - Pérez-Fournon, I.

AU - Pye, J. P.

AU - Roberts, T. P.

AU - Rosen, S.

AU - Schartel, N.

AU - Schurch, N.

AU - Schwope, A.

AU - Severgnini, P.

AU - Sharp, R.

AU - Stewart, G. C.

AU - Szokoly, G.

AU - Ullán, A.

AU - Ward, M. J.

AU - Warwick, R. S.

AU - Wheatley, P. J.

AU - Webb, N. A.

AU - Worrall, D.

AU - Yuan, W.

AU - Ziaeepour, H.

PY - 2007/12/1

Y1 - 2007/12/1

N2 - Aims.X-ray sources at intermediate fluxes (a few 10 erg cm s) with a sky density of ∼100 deg are responsible for a significant fraction of the cosmic X-ray background at various energies below 10 keV. The aim of this paper is to provide an unbiased and quantitative description of the X-ray source population at these fluxes and in various X-ray energy bands.Methods.We present the XMM-Newton Medium sensitivity Survey (XMS), including a total of 318 X-ray sources found among the serendipitous content of 25 XMM-Newton target fields. The XMS comprises four largely overlapping source samples selected at soft (0.5-2 keV), intermediate (0.5-4.5 keV), hard (2-10 keV) and ultra-hard (4.5-7.5 keV) bands, the first three of them being flux-limited.Results.We report on the optical identification of the XMS samples, complete to 85-95%. At the flux levels sampled by the XMS we find that the X-ray sky is largely dominated by Active Galactic Nuclei. The fraction of stars in soft X-ray selected samples is below 10%, and only a few per cent for hard selected samples. We find that the fraction of optically obscured objects in the AGN population stays constant at around 15-20% for soft and intermediate band selected X-ray sources, over 2 decades of flux. The fraction of obscured objects amongst the AGN population is larger (∼35-45%) in the hard or ultra-hard selected samples, and constant across a similarly wide flux range. The distribution in X-ray-to-optical flux ratio is a strong function of the selection band, with a larger fraction of sources with high values in hard selected samples. Sources with X-ray-to-optical flux ratios in excess of 10 are dominated by obscured AGN, but with a significant contribution from unobscured AGN. .

AB - Aims.X-ray sources at intermediate fluxes (a few 10 erg cm s) with a sky density of ∼100 deg are responsible for a significant fraction of the cosmic X-ray background at various energies below 10 keV. The aim of this paper is to provide an unbiased and quantitative description of the X-ray source population at these fluxes and in various X-ray energy bands.Methods.We present the XMM-Newton Medium sensitivity Survey (XMS), including a total of 318 X-ray sources found among the serendipitous content of 25 XMM-Newton target fields. The XMS comprises four largely overlapping source samples selected at soft (0.5-2 keV), intermediate (0.5-4.5 keV), hard (2-10 keV) and ultra-hard (4.5-7.5 keV) bands, the first three of them being flux-limited.Results.We report on the optical identification of the XMS samples, complete to 85-95%. At the flux levels sampled by the XMS we find that the X-ray sky is largely dominated by Active Galactic Nuclei. The fraction of stars in soft X-ray selected samples is below 10%, and only a few per cent for hard selected samples. We find that the fraction of optically obscured objects in the AGN population stays constant at around 15-20% for soft and intermediate band selected X-ray sources, over 2 decades of flux. The fraction of obscured objects amongst the AGN population is larger (∼35-45%) in the hard or ultra-hard selected samples, and constant across a similarly wide flux range. The distribution in X-ray-to-optical flux ratio is a strong function of the selection band, with a larger fraction of sources with high values in hard selected samples. Sources with X-ray-to-optical flux ratios in excess of 10 are dominated by obscured AGN, but with a significant contribution from unobscured AGN. .

KW - Galaxies: active

KW - X-rays: galaxies

KW - X-rays: general

KW - X-rays: stars

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