The use of a gas chromatography/milli-whistle technique for the on-line monitoring of ethanol production using microtube array membrane immobilized yeast cells

Ming Ju Wu, Guan Fu Ye, Ching Hao Wang, Hong Ting Victor Lin, Chien Chung Chen, Cheng Huang Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


Hollow, poly(L-lactic acid) microtube array membranes (MTAM) were used in preparing membranes that contained immobilized yeast cells. To evaluate the performance of the developed system for continuous and fed-batch fermentation, a gas chromatography/milli-whistle device was used to on-line monitor the production of ethanol. The milli-whistle was connected to the outlet of a GC capillary, and when the fermentation gases and the GC carrier gas passed through it, a sound with a fundamental frequency was produced. The online data obtained for frequency-change vs. retention time can be recorded after a fast Fourier transform. In typical bioethanol fermentation, the yeast cells cannot be recycled, whereas the artificial yeast-MTAMs can be. The hollow-MTAM containing immobilized yeast cells significantly enhanced to bioethanol productivity, and represent a novel, promising technology for bioethanol fermentation. Our data indicate that the gas chromatography/milli-whistle device, which is economical and stable, is a very useful detector for long-term monitoring.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)625-630
Number of pages6
JournalAnalytical Sciences
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jan 1



  • Ethanol
  • Gas chromatography
  • Whistle
  • Yeast immobilization
  • Yeast-MTAM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry

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