The "third"-order barrier for technology-integration instruction: Implications for teacher education

Chin-Chung Tsai, Ching Sing Chai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

157 Citations (Scopus)


Technology integration is a major trend in contemporary education practice. When undertaking technology integration in classrooms, a first-order barrier and a second-order barrier, as proposed by Ertmer (1999), can hinder its implementation. The first-order barrier is external, such as lack of adequate access, time, training and institutional support. The second-order barrier includes teachers' personal and fundamental beliefs such as teachers' pedagogical beliefs, technology beliefs, willingness to change. This paper argues that the lack of design thinking by teachers may be the "third"-order barrier for technology integration.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1057-1060
JournalAustralasian Journal of Educational Technology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Aug 15

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