The sequential structure of movement outcome in learning a discrete timing task

Karl M. Newell*, Yeou Teh Liu, Gottfried Mayer-Kress

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


The sequential structure of discrete movement outcomes in an elbow- flexion movement task was examined with a crossed design of 2 movement-time (125 and 500 ms) and 2 range-of-motion (5' and 20') conditions over sets of 200 trials of practice. Traditional analyses of error score techniques, time- series analyses of the quantitative raw and differenced data, and a symbolic dynamic analysis of qualitative events arising from the data were conducted. The differenced data revealed a consistent order over 3-trial strings that was more apparent with larger steps in the data scores, but quantitative time-series and symbolic dynamic analyses of the raw movement-time data showed weaker relations. There were a few patterns of structure evident in the raw data time-series that were a function of the movement condition and the skill level of the subject. The analyses of the movement-time scores revealed that, in learning the discrete timing task, there is more order apparent in the intrinsic frame of reference of the difference scores than in the extrinsic frame of reference.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)366-382
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Motor Behavior
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1997 Dec
Externally publishedYes


  • Learning
  • Time-series
  • Timing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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