The reproductive ecology of female Rana (Limnonectes) kuhlii, a fanged frog of Taiwan, with particular emphasis on multiple clutches

Hiroshi Tsuji*, Kuang Yang Lue

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


The reproductive ecology of female Kuhl's wart frog Rana (Limnonectes) kuhlii, one of the fanged frogs, was studied under natural conditions in subtropical Taiwan. Egg-laying by females of R. kuhlii occurred asynchronously throughout a three-month study period, and was aggregated at five sites along an 81-m transect of a small creek. Rana kuhlii is unusual among anurans in that females are generally smaller than their mates (67.6% of 34 amplexed pairs), and typically lay multiple clutches. Females each occupied stable residence sites along the transect during non-breeding intervals, usually away from the main oviposition sites. Amplexus or oviposition occurred on average 14.5 m (maximum 54.5 m) away from each female's residence site. The frequency of oviposition (including amplexus) was observed on average on 3.1 occasions for each female (maximum nine), and including presumed occasions (based on spatial movement patterns) was estimated to occur on average on 3.9 occasions (maximum 10), during the 50 nights surveyed. The inter-clutch period for each female averaged 12.7 days (minimum three days). Females laying multiple clutches usually laid at different sites and mated with different males for each clutch. Several aspects distinguish the multiple clutching of R. kuhlii from other anuran species laying multiple clutches. Possible explanations for the high frequency of oviposition by females of R. kuhlii are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-165
Number of pages13
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2000 Jun


  • Anura
  • Fanged frogs
  • Female reproductive ecology
  • Multiple egg clutches
  • Rana (Limnonectes) kuhlii
  • Subtropical Asia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Animal Science and Zoology


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