The overjustification effect: A meta‐analysis

Shu‐Hua ‐H Tang*, Vernon C. Hall

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

153 Citations (Scopus)


This article reports the results of a meta‐analysis using 50 experimental studies (256 effect sizes) of the overjustification effect. In general, we found support for the effect across age, dependent measure, and design type in specific situations where it is predicted to occur. Findings are less supportive of the theory for situations where there should be no difference between experimental and control groups (e. g. non‐contingent or unexpected reward). Suggestions for future research are made.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)365-404
Number of pages40
JournalApplied Cognitive Psychology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1995 Oct
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)


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