The Optimal Sizing Design Approach of Hybrid Energy Sources for Various Electric Vehicles

Syuan Yi Chen, Chu Yang Chiu, Yi Hsuan Hung*, Kuo Kuang Jen, Gwo Huei You, Po Lin Shih

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we present a discussion about green energy sources that have been widely utilized in electric vehicles (EVs). To achieve different requirements of various EVs, the correct sizing of energy sources is crucial so that the cost and output performance will be optimized. In this research, three energy sources, supercapacitors (SCs), lithium titanate oxide (LTO) batteries, and Nickel Manganese Cobalt (NCM) (or Li3) batteries, were considered for hybridization. An effective global search algorithm (GSA) was designed for optimal sizing of hybrid electric energy systems (HEESs). The GSA procedures were: (1) vehicle specification and performance requirements of energy sources, (2) determination of cost function and constraints, (3) GSA optimization with for-loops, (4) optimal results. Five examples of EVs, the electric sedan, long-distance electric bus, short-distance electric bus, electric forklift, and electric sports car, were analyzed for optimal hybrid energy combination under different criteria and specifications. The GSA effectively optimized the designs of energy sizing. The performance indices and vehicle requirements studied were the specific price, specific energy at a constant volume, specific energy at a constant mass, and specific power at a constant mass for three energy sources, SCs, LTO batteries, and Li batteries. The vehicle requirements including the maximum output power, vehicle acceleration, climbability, and maximum speed have been formulated as the design constraints. A numerical analysis of five types of EVs was analyzed for optimal sizing of the HEES and the optimal position of the DC/DC converter with the lowest cost function. The integrated system and control designs of the HESS using the GSA, more applications for green energy sources, and different types of EVs will be studied in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2961
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Mar 1


  • Electric vehicle
  • Global search algorithm
  • Lithium titanate oxide (LTO)
  • Optimal sizing
  • Supercapacitor (SC)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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