The human-in-the-loop design approach to the longitudinal automation system for an intelligent vehicle

Hsin Han Chiang*, Shinq Jen Wu, Jau Woei Perng, Bing Fei Wu, Tsu Tian Lee

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a safe and comfortable longitudinal automation system which incorporates human-in-the-loop technology. The proposed system has a hierarchical structure that consists of an adaptive detection area, a supervisory control, and a regulation control. The adaptive detection area routes the information from on-board sensors to ensure the detection of vehicles ahead, particularly when driving on curves. Based on the recognized target distance from the adaptive detection area, the supervisory control determines the desired velocity for the vehicle to maintain safety and smooth operation in different modes. The regulation control utilizes a soft-computing technique and drives the throttle to execute the commanded velocity from the supervisory control. The feasible detection range is within 45 m, and the high velocity for the system operation is up to 100 km/h. The throttle automation under low velocity at 10-30 km/h can also be well managed by the regulation control. Numerous experimental tests in a real traffic environment exhibit the system's validity and achievement in the desired level of comfort through the evaluation of international standard ISO 2631-1.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5428833
Pages (from-to)708-720
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Part A:Systems and Humans
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Jul
Externally publishedYes


  • Adaptive cruise control (ACC)
  • human-in-the-loop (HITL)
  • intelligent vehicles
  • longitudinal vehicle control
  • transportation systems
  • vehicle automation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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