The formation of IQ type mutagens from Maillard reaction in ethanolic solution

Ming Chang Wu, Chia Yu Ma, Chi Ching Yang, Wen Chuan Kao, Szu Chuan Shen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


The present study mimics cooking meats in alcohol or distilled spirit marinades by using a 0.1. M creatinine/0.05. M sugars/0.1. M threonine ethanolic model solution, in an attempt to investigate the formation of the heterocyclic amines IQ and IQx, via Maillard reaction. The results showed that ethanol accelerated the formation of IQ and IQx, in a dose-dependent manner. In an aqueous model solution of 0.1. M creatinine/0.05. M glucose/0.1. M threonine after 8. h heating at 150 °C, the contents of IQ and IQx are 16.5 ± 2.2 and 26.2 ± 4.2. mg/kg, respectively. However, at a similar Maillard browning level in the equivalent 50% ethanolic model solution after heating at the same temperature for only 4. h, the contents of IQ and IQx significantly increase to 46.0 ± 5.5 and 69.2 ± 3.4. mg/kg, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)582-587
Number of pages6
JournalFood Chemistry
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Mar 15


  • Alcohol
  • Carcinogenic
  • IQ
  • IQx
  • Maillard reaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Food Science


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