TY - JOUR

T1 - The First Estimation of the Ambipolar Diffusivity Coefficient from Multi-scale Observations of the Class 0/I Protostar, HOPS-370

AU - Thieme, Travis J.

AU - Lai, Shih Ping

AU - Lee, Yueh Ning

AU - Lin, Sheng Jun

AU - Yen, Hsi Wei

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2024. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society.

PY - 2024/6/1

Y1 - 2024/6/1

N2 - Protostars are born in magnetized environments. As a consequence, the formation of protostellar disks can be suppressed by the magnetic field, efficiently removing the angular momentum of the infalling material. Nonideal MHD effects are proposed as one way to allow protostellar disks to form. Thus, it is important to understand their contributions to observations of protostellar systems. We derive an analytical equation to estimate the ambipolar diffusivity coefficient at the edge of the protostellar disk in the Class 0/I protostar, HOPS-370, for the first time, under the assumption that the disk radius is set by ambipolar diffusion. Using previous results of the protostellar mass, disk mass, disk radius, density and temperature profiles, and magnetic field strength, we estimate the ambipolar diffusivity coefficient to be 1.7 − 1.4 + 1.5 × 10 19 cm 2 s − 1 . We quantify the contribution of ambipolar diffusion by estimating its dimensionless Elsässer number to be ∼ 1.7 − 1.0 + 1.0 , indicating its dynamical importance in this region. We compare our results to those of the chemical calculations of the ambipolar diffusivity coefficient using the Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics Coefficients and Ionization Library, which are consistent with our results. In addition, we compare our derived ambipolar diffusivity coefficient to the diffusivity coefficients for ohmic dissipation and the Hall effect, and find ambipolar diffusion is dominant in our density regime. These results demonstrate a new methodology to understand nonideal MHD effects in observations of protostellar disks. More detailed modeling of the magnetic field, envelope, and microphysics, along with a larger sample of protostellar systems, is needed to further understand the contributions of nonideal MHD.

AB - Protostars are born in magnetized environments. As a consequence, the formation of protostellar disks can be suppressed by the magnetic field, efficiently removing the angular momentum of the infalling material. Nonideal MHD effects are proposed as one way to allow protostellar disks to form. Thus, it is important to understand their contributions to observations of protostellar systems. We derive an analytical equation to estimate the ambipolar diffusivity coefficient at the edge of the protostellar disk in the Class 0/I protostar, HOPS-370, for the first time, under the assumption that the disk radius is set by ambipolar diffusion. Using previous results of the protostellar mass, disk mass, disk radius, density and temperature profiles, and magnetic field strength, we estimate the ambipolar diffusivity coefficient to be 1.7 − 1.4 + 1.5 × 10 19 cm 2 s − 1 . We quantify the contribution of ambipolar diffusion by estimating its dimensionless Elsässer number to be ∼ 1.7 − 1.0 + 1.0 , indicating its dynamical importance in this region. We compare our results to those of the chemical calculations of the ambipolar diffusivity coefficient using the Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics Coefficients and Ionization Library, which are consistent with our results. In addition, we compare our derived ambipolar diffusivity coefficient to the diffusivity coefficients for ohmic dissipation and the Hall effect, and find ambipolar diffusion is dominant in our density regime. These results demonstrate a new methodology to understand nonideal MHD effects in observations of protostellar disks. More detailed modeling of the magnetic field, envelope, and microphysics, along with a larger sample of protostellar systems, is needed to further understand the contributions of nonideal MHD.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85195630264&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85195630264&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3847/1538-4357/ad4297

DO - 10.3847/1538-4357/ad4297

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85195630264

SN - 0004-637X

VL - 968

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

IS - 1

M1 - 26

ER -