The Effects of Using Virtual Reality on Thai Word Order Learning

Nitiwat Watthanapas, Yung Wei Hao, Jian Hong Ye*, Jon Chao Hong*, Jhen Ni Ye

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Thai has its own unique spelling system and grammatical rules. Its word order is quite different from that of Mandarin and English, thus making it more difficult for students in Taiwan to learn. Past studies also point out that learning word order is one of the most difficult aspects when learning foreign languages. As science and technology advance, emerging technologies have been widely applied in foreign language learning. This research aims to explore the effect of using a multi-language VR learning assessment system on assisting Thai learners to learn grammatical word order, and to investigate the correlates between Thai self-efficacy, Thai language anxiety, word order learning retention, and task value of VR learning. In order to accomplish this purpose, we invited Thai learners who took Thai courses in the continuing education division of a national university in northern Taiwan to participate in a 5-week teaching experiment, during which the participants were asked to practice Thai word order for 20 min. They were administered a questionnaire to fill out after five weeks of practice and were tested for retention one month after the experiment. A total of 84 valid questionnaires were collected, with an effective return rate of 93.3%. Of the respondents, 30 were male (35.7%), and 54 were female (64.3%). The data were subjected to item analysis, reliability and validity analysis, and then underwent PLS-SEM for research model validation. The results revealed that: (1) Thai language self-efficacy was positively related to learning retention and task value; (2) Thai language anxiety was negatively related to learning retention and task value; (3) Learning retention was positively related to the task value of learning and continuous usage intention.

Original languageEnglish
Article number517
JournalBrain Sciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Mar


  • Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)
  • Thai language learning
  • cognitive theory of multimedia learning
  • learning retention
  • task value
  • theories of embodied cognition
  • virtual reality
  • word order learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience


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