The effects of continuously acoustical stress on cortisol in milkfish (Chanos chanos)

Chih An Wei, Tzu Hao Lin, Ruo Dong Chen, Yung Che Tseng, Yi Ta Shao*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Strong underwater acoustic noise has been known that may cause hearing loss and actual stress in teleost. However, the long-term physiological effects of relatively quiet but continuously noise on fish were less understood. In present study, milkfish, Chanos chanos, were exposed to the simulated-wind farm noise either quiet (109 dB re 1 μPa/125.4 Hz; approx. 10–100 m distant from the wind farm) or noisy (138 dB re 1 μPa/125.4 Hz; nearby the wind farm) conditions for 24 h, 3 days and 1 week. Comparing to the control group (80 dB re 1 μPa/125.4 Hz), the fish exposed to noisy conditions had higher plasma cortisol levels in the first 24 h. However, the cortisol levels of 24 h spot returned to the resting levels quickly. The fish exposed under noisy condition had significantly higher head kidney star (steroidogenic acute regulatory) and hsd11b2 (11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2) mRNA levels at the following treatment time points. In addition, noise exposure did not change hypothalamus crh (Corticotropin-releasing hormone) mRNA levels in this experiment. The results implied that the weak but continuously noise was a potential stressor to fish, but the impacts may be various depending on the sound levels and exposure time. Furthermore, this study showed that the continuous noise may up-regulate the genes that are related to cortisol synthesis and possibly make the fish more sensitive to ambient stressors, which may influence the energy allocation appearance in long-term exposures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)227-234
Number of pages8
JournalGeneral and Comparative Endocrinology
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Feb 1


  • Cortisol
  • Milkfish
  • Underwater noise
  • Wind farm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Endocrinology


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