The development and validation of the emotional cultivation scale: An East Asian cultural perspective

Li Fei Wang, Meifen Wei, Evelyn Yan Yi Koay, Ming Hua Lo, Ming Yang Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Research on emotion regulation in East Asian children and adolescents is limited. One obstacle hindering the development of emotion regulation for East Asian children and adolescents is the lack of a culturally sensitive measure. To fill this gap, we have developed and validated the Emotional Cultivation Scale using samples of Taiwanese children and adolescents. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (n = 341) identified two factors: Cultivating Emotion Strategies and Understanding Emotion Connotations. A confirmatory factor analysis (n = 358) confirmed this two-factor structure. Coefficient αs were.69 to.88 for Emotional Cultivation. Convergent validity was evidenced by positive associations with cognitive reappraisal and cognitive flexibility. Discriminant validity was supported by a nonsignificant association with suppression. Concurrent validity was revealed by positive associations with positive affect, basic psychological need satisfaction, gratitude, responsiveness from teachers, responsiveness from parents, and academic self-efficacy. Incremental validity was evidenced by the finding that emotional cultivation significantly accounted for an additional 2 to 20% of the variance in predicting cognitive flexibility, positive affect, basic psychological need satisfaction, gratitude, responsiveness from teachers, responsiveness from parents, and academic self-efficacy above and beyond cognitive reappraisal and suppression. Results from the multigroup analysis further indicated factor loading invariance and validity invariance between boys and girls and between elementary and middle schools. The factor structure was cross-validated by a clinical sample of Taiwanese children and adolescents (N = 161) and their parents in Study 2 (N = 159). The counseling implications were discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)409-423
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Counseling Psychology
Volume66
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jul

Fingerprint

Emotions
Parents
Self Efficacy
Statistical Factor Analysis
Psychology
Counseling
Research

Keywords

  • Adolescence
  • Elementary and middle school
  • Emotion regulation
  • Emotional cultivation
  • Scale development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

The development and validation of the emotional cultivation scale : An East Asian cultural perspective. / Wang, Li Fei; Wei, Meifen; Koay, Evelyn Yan Yi; Lo, Ming Hua; Lee, Ming Yang.

In: Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol. 66, No. 4, 07.2019, p. 409-423.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wang, Li Fei ; Wei, Meifen ; Koay, Evelyn Yan Yi ; Lo, Ming Hua ; Lee, Ming Yang. / The development and validation of the emotional cultivation scale : An East Asian cultural perspective. In: Journal of Counseling Psychology. 2019 ; Vol. 66, No. 4. pp. 409-423.
@article{ffb9a6a3388f4da3983379ae7b10af87,
title = "The development and validation of the emotional cultivation scale: An East Asian cultural perspective",
abstract = "Research on emotion regulation in East Asian children and adolescents is limited. One obstacle hindering the development of emotion regulation for East Asian children and adolescents is the lack of a culturally sensitive measure. To fill this gap, we have developed and validated the Emotional Cultivation Scale using samples of Taiwanese children and adolescents. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (n = 341) identified two factors: Cultivating Emotion Strategies and Understanding Emotion Connotations. A confirmatory factor analysis (n = 358) confirmed this two-factor structure. Coefficient αs were.69 to.88 for Emotional Cultivation. Convergent validity was evidenced by positive associations with cognitive reappraisal and cognitive flexibility. Discriminant validity was supported by a nonsignificant association with suppression. Concurrent validity was revealed by positive associations with positive affect, basic psychological need satisfaction, gratitude, responsiveness from teachers, responsiveness from parents, and academic self-efficacy. Incremental validity was evidenced by the finding that emotional cultivation significantly accounted for an additional 2 to 20{\%} of the variance in predicting cognitive flexibility, positive affect, basic psychological need satisfaction, gratitude, responsiveness from teachers, responsiveness from parents, and academic self-efficacy above and beyond cognitive reappraisal and suppression. Results from the multigroup analysis further indicated factor loading invariance and validity invariance between boys and girls and between elementary and middle schools. The factor structure was cross-validated by a clinical sample of Taiwanese children and adolescents (N = 161) and their parents in Study 2 (N = 159). The counseling implications were discussed.",
keywords = "Adolescence, Elementary and middle school, Emotion regulation, Emotional cultivation, Scale development",
author = "Wang, {Li Fei} and Meifen Wei and Koay, {Evelyn Yan Yi} and Lo, {Ming Hua} and Lee, {Ming Yang}",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1037/cou0000346",
language = "English",
volume = "66",
pages = "409--423",
journal = "Journal of Counseling Psychology",
issn = "0022-0167",
publisher = "American Psychological Association Inc.",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The development and validation of the emotional cultivation scale

T2 - An East Asian cultural perspective

AU - Wang, Li Fei

AU - Wei, Meifen

AU - Koay, Evelyn Yan Yi

AU - Lo, Ming Hua

AU - Lee, Ming Yang

PY - 2019/7

Y1 - 2019/7

N2 - Research on emotion regulation in East Asian children and adolescents is limited. One obstacle hindering the development of emotion regulation for East Asian children and adolescents is the lack of a culturally sensitive measure. To fill this gap, we have developed and validated the Emotional Cultivation Scale using samples of Taiwanese children and adolescents. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (n = 341) identified two factors: Cultivating Emotion Strategies and Understanding Emotion Connotations. A confirmatory factor analysis (n = 358) confirmed this two-factor structure. Coefficient αs were.69 to.88 for Emotional Cultivation. Convergent validity was evidenced by positive associations with cognitive reappraisal and cognitive flexibility. Discriminant validity was supported by a nonsignificant association with suppression. Concurrent validity was revealed by positive associations with positive affect, basic psychological need satisfaction, gratitude, responsiveness from teachers, responsiveness from parents, and academic self-efficacy. Incremental validity was evidenced by the finding that emotional cultivation significantly accounted for an additional 2 to 20% of the variance in predicting cognitive flexibility, positive affect, basic psychological need satisfaction, gratitude, responsiveness from teachers, responsiveness from parents, and academic self-efficacy above and beyond cognitive reappraisal and suppression. Results from the multigroup analysis further indicated factor loading invariance and validity invariance between boys and girls and between elementary and middle schools. The factor structure was cross-validated by a clinical sample of Taiwanese children and adolescents (N = 161) and their parents in Study 2 (N = 159). The counseling implications were discussed.

AB - Research on emotion regulation in East Asian children and adolescents is limited. One obstacle hindering the development of emotion regulation for East Asian children and adolescents is the lack of a culturally sensitive measure. To fill this gap, we have developed and validated the Emotional Cultivation Scale using samples of Taiwanese children and adolescents. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (n = 341) identified two factors: Cultivating Emotion Strategies and Understanding Emotion Connotations. A confirmatory factor analysis (n = 358) confirmed this two-factor structure. Coefficient αs were.69 to.88 for Emotional Cultivation. Convergent validity was evidenced by positive associations with cognitive reappraisal and cognitive flexibility. Discriminant validity was supported by a nonsignificant association with suppression. Concurrent validity was revealed by positive associations with positive affect, basic psychological need satisfaction, gratitude, responsiveness from teachers, responsiveness from parents, and academic self-efficacy. Incremental validity was evidenced by the finding that emotional cultivation significantly accounted for an additional 2 to 20% of the variance in predicting cognitive flexibility, positive affect, basic psychological need satisfaction, gratitude, responsiveness from teachers, responsiveness from parents, and academic self-efficacy above and beyond cognitive reappraisal and suppression. Results from the multigroup analysis further indicated factor loading invariance and validity invariance between boys and girls and between elementary and middle schools. The factor structure was cross-validated by a clinical sample of Taiwanese children and adolescents (N = 161) and their parents in Study 2 (N = 159). The counseling implications were discussed.

KW - Adolescence

KW - Elementary and middle school

KW - Emotion regulation

KW - Emotional cultivation

KW - Scale development

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85064397870&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85064397870&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1037/cou0000346

DO - 10.1037/cou0000346

M3 - Article

C2 - 30985169

AN - SCOPUS:85064397870

VL - 66

SP - 409

EP - 423

JO - Journal of Counseling Psychology

JF - Journal of Counseling Psychology

SN - 0022-0167

IS - 4

ER -