The development and validation of the emotional cultivation scale: An East Asian cultural perspective

Li Fei Wang, Meifen Wei, Evelyn Yan Yi Koay, Ming Hua Lo, Ming Yang Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Research on emotion regulation in East Asian children and adolescents is limited. One obstacle hindering the development of emotion regulation for East Asian children and adolescents is the lack of a culturally sensitive measure. To fill this gap, we have developed and validated the Emotional Cultivation Scale using samples of Taiwanese children and adolescents. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (n = 341) identified two factors: Cultivating Emotion Strategies and Understanding Emotion Connotations. A confirmatory factor analysis (n = 358) confirmed this two-factor structure. Coefficient αs were.69 to.88 for Emotional Cultivation. Convergent validity was evidenced by positive associations with cognitive reappraisal and cognitive flexibility. Discriminant validity was supported by a nonsignificant association with suppression. Concurrent validity was revealed by positive associations with positive affect, basic psychological need satisfaction, gratitude, responsiveness from teachers, responsiveness from parents, and academic self-efficacy. Incremental validity was evidenced by the finding that emotional cultivation significantly accounted for an additional 2 to 20% of the variance in predicting cognitive flexibility, positive affect, basic psychological need satisfaction, gratitude, responsiveness from teachers, responsiveness from parents, and academic self-efficacy above and beyond cognitive reappraisal and suppression. Results from the multigroup analysis further indicated factor loading invariance and validity invariance between boys and girls and between elementary and middle schools. The factor structure was cross-validated by a clinical sample of Taiwanese children and adolescents (N = 161) and their parents in Study 2 (N = 159). The counseling implications were discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)409-423
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Counseling Psychology
Volume66
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jul

Keywords

  • Adolescence
  • Elementary and middle school
  • Emotion regulation
  • Emotional cultivation
  • Scale development
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Parents/psychology
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group/psychology
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Male
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Caregivers/psychology
  • Emotions
  • Young Adult
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Aged
  • Child
  • Schools

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Social Psychology

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