The cross-level effects of teachers' reading instruction, students' reading attitude, and self-assessment in reading proficiency on students' reading achievement: A multilevel study of PIRLS 2006

Yu Jen Chang, Hwa Wei Ko, Haw Jeng Chiou, Tsung Lin Ou, Fur Hsing Wen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)


The purposes of this study is to probe the impacts of the frequencies of Reading Instruction Activities (RIA) and Reading Strategies Teaching (RST) implemented by teachers, as well as students' Home Education Resources (HER), Reading Attitude (RA), and Self-Assessment (SA) regarding their reading proficiency to students' reading achievement. A two-level database of 128 teachers (macro-level) and matched 3,472 fourth-graders (micro-level) was selected from the Taiwan PIRLS 2006 Database. Multilevel linear modeling (MLM) was then applied to analyze the data. The results indicated that in micro-level, HER, RA, and SA can significantly explain students' reading achievement in a positive way. In the macro-level, neither RIA nor RST showed a significant contextual effect on students' reading achievement. Additionally, the specific interaction among the cross-level analysis was likely to involve the frequencies of RIA, enhancing the relationship between students' RA and their reading achievement. Based on the research findings, the researcher also addresses issues pertaining to the limitations of the study and suggestions for future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-105
Number of pages37
JournalJournal of Research in Education Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Jan 1



  • Cross-level interaction
  • Database
  • Hierarchical linear modeling
  • Reading achievement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education

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