Teachers’ agency in the era of LLM and generative AI: Designing pedagogical AI agents

Yu Ju Lan, Nian Shing Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purpose of this study is to explore the existing problems associated with using generative AI in education and to propose a potential solution for addressing those issues through the design of pedagogical AI agents. The existing problems are examined from two different perspectives: those of teachers and students. The proposed solutions for designing pedagogical AI agents are systematically presented, including main concepts, design considerations, functions, procedures, and structure/templates. An example of how to apply the proposed solution in designing a pedagogical AI agent is provided, illustrating its application in teaching order words (or sequencing words). Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of potential topics for further research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalEducational Technology and Society
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Generative artificial intelligence (GAI)
  • Instructional design
  • Pedagogical AI agent
  • Personalized learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • General Engineering


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