Students’ Blended Learning Course Experience Scale (BLCES): development and validation

Kaushal Kumar Bhagat*, Chia Hui Cheng, Indira Koneru, Fong Soon Fook, Chun Yen Chang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to develop a scale to measure students’ blended learning course experience. A total of 792 undergraduate students from Malaysia participated in this study. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was employed to evaluate the factor structure of the scale. As a result of EFA, three factors with 19 items that explained 68.06% of the total variance were obtained. The three factors are: course design, learning experience, and personal factors. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to establish the structural validity of the scale, and item discrimination was conducted to validate the scale. The Cronbach’s coefficients (α) for the factors ranged from.71 to.95. The overall Cronbach’s coefficient (α) of the scale was.92, demonstrating a satisfactory level of reliability. The results showed that the developed scale is reliable and valid. Future implications for course designers and instructors are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3971-3981
Number of pages11
JournalInteractive Learning Environments
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Blended learning
  • course design
  • factor analysis
  • higher education
  • learning experience
  • personal factors
  • scale development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Computer Science Applications


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