Structural, magnetic, and optical properties of Co- and Gd-implanted ZnO(0001) substrates

V. Ney*, S. Ye, T. Kammermeier, A. Ney, H. Zhou, J. Fallert, H. Kalt, F. Y. Lo, A. Melnikov, A. D. Wieck

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


ZnO(0001) substrates were ion implanted with 100 keV of Co and 300 keV of Gd at different fluences ranging from 5× 1013 -1× 1015 / cm2. The resulting Co:ZnO and Gd:ZnO samples were analyzed with respect to their structural, magnetic, and optical properties. The effect of annealing at 350 °C on the structure and the resulting magnetic and optical properties were investigated as well. For Co:ZnO hardly any changes were observable, neither in the structural nor in the magnetic properties, even though the existence of substitutional Co2+ in the ZnO lattice could be shown by means of low temperature photoluminescence especially for Zn-annealed samples. For the much larger Gd ion the implantation leads to a changed crystal structure, which leads to a ferromagneticlike behavior for higher implantation doses, which could even be enhanced by annealing in vacuum. Ferromagnetic behavior in annealed Gd:ZnO is corroborated by ferromagnetic resonance measurements at low temperatures. The distinct behavior of Gd- and Co-implanted ZnO highlights the importance of defects in the understanding of the magnetic properties in dilute magnetic semiconductors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number083904
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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