Structural, magnetic, and optical properties of Co- and Gd-implanted ZnO(0001) substrates

V. Ney, S. Ye, T. Kammermeier, A. Ney, H. Zhou, J. Fallert, H. Kalt, F. Y. Lo, A. Melnikov, A. D. Wieck

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Abstract

ZnO(0001) substrates were ion implanted with 100 keV of Co and 300 keV of Gd at different fluences ranging from 5× 1013 -1× 1015 / cm2. The resulting Co:ZnO and Gd:ZnO samples were analyzed with respect to their structural, magnetic, and optical properties. The effect of annealing at 350 °C on the structure and the resulting magnetic and optical properties were investigated as well. For Co:ZnO hardly any changes were observable, neither in the structural nor in the magnetic properties, even though the existence of substitutional Co2+ in the ZnO lattice could be shown by means of low temperature photoluminescence especially for Zn-annealed samples. For the much larger Gd ion the implantation leads to a changed crystal structure, which leads to a ferromagneticlike behavior for higher implantation doses, which could even be enhanced by annealing in vacuum. Ferromagnetic behavior in annealed Gd:ZnO is corroborated by ferromagnetic resonance measurements at low temperatures. The distinct behavior of Gd- and Co-implanted ZnO highlights the importance of defects in the understanding of the magnetic properties in dilute magnetic semiconductors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number083904
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Volume104
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Nov 7

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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    Ney, V., Ye, S., Kammermeier, T., Ney, A., Zhou, H., Fallert, J., Kalt, H., Lo, F. Y., Melnikov, A., & Wieck, A. D. (2008). Structural, magnetic, and optical properties of Co- and Gd-implanted ZnO(0001) substrates. Journal of Applied Physics, 104(8), [083904]. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3000452