Stinky tofu as a rich source of bioavailable S-equol in Asian diets

Hei Jen Jou, Po Jung Tsai, Jo Han Tu, Wen Huey Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The compound S-equol (4',7-dihydroxy-isoflavandiol), a gut bacterial metabolite of isoflavone daidzein, benefits health, but only 20-60% of humans can produce equol after ingesting isoflavones, and it exists only in foods of animal origin in trace amounts. A recent study found a source of stinky tofu contained S-equol. As stinky tofu is a popular traditional fermented soy food in Taiwan, we analyzed S-equol contents of commercial samples, surveyed the intake frequency, and investigated the bioavailability of S-equol by monitoring urinary kinetics following ingestion. Our results showed 91% of the 138 stinky tofu dishes contained S-equol. The mean content per serving (average 198. g) was 2.3±2.5 mg, the highest being 16.3. mg. Stinky tofu eaters on average ingested this food 3.3 times per month. S-equol from ingested stinky tofu appeared in urine within 1. h, reaching maximum excretion at 3.4. h, and 67% of the ingested S-equol was recovered in urine, indicating a rapid and high absorption. Our studies suggest stinky tofu can be a promising dietary source of S-equol for its high content and bioavailability. Further study on the S-equol producing bacteria in stinky tofu is merited for the development of other S-equol rich soy products.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)651-659
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Functional Foods
Volume5
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Apr 1

Fingerprint

Equol
Soy Foods
tofu
Diet
diet
isoflavones
bioavailability
urine
Isoflavones
animal-based foods
soybean products
Biological Availability
daidzein
Urine
Taiwan
Food
digestive system
excretion
ingestion
metabolites

Keywords

  • Equol
  • Fermented soy food
  • Isoflavone
  • Stinky tofu
  • Urine kinetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Stinky tofu as a rich source of bioavailable S-equol in Asian diets. / Jou, Hei Jen; Tsai, Po Jung; Tu, Jo Han; Wu, Wen Huey.

In: Journal of Functional Foods, Vol. 5, No. 2, 01.04.2013, p. 651-659.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jou, Hei Jen ; Tsai, Po Jung ; Tu, Jo Han ; Wu, Wen Huey. / Stinky tofu as a rich source of bioavailable S-equol in Asian diets. In: Journal of Functional Foods. 2013 ; Vol. 5, No. 2. pp. 651-659.
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abstract = "The compound S-equol (4',7-dihydroxy-isoflavandiol), a gut bacterial metabolite of isoflavone daidzein, benefits health, but only 20-60{\%} of humans can produce equol after ingesting isoflavones, and it exists only in foods of animal origin in trace amounts. A recent study found a source of stinky tofu contained S-equol. As stinky tofu is a popular traditional fermented soy food in Taiwan, we analyzed S-equol contents of commercial samples, surveyed the intake frequency, and investigated the bioavailability of S-equol by monitoring urinary kinetics following ingestion. Our results showed 91{\%} of the 138 stinky tofu dishes contained S-equol. The mean content per serving (average 198. g) was 2.3±2.5 mg, the highest being 16.3. mg. Stinky tofu eaters on average ingested this food 3.3 times per month. S-equol from ingested stinky tofu appeared in urine within 1. h, reaching maximum excretion at 3.4. h, and 67{\%} of the ingested S-equol was recovered in urine, indicating a rapid and high absorption. Our studies suggest stinky tofu can be a promising dietary source of S-equol for its high content and bioavailability. Further study on the S-equol producing bacteria in stinky tofu is merited for the development of other S-equol rich soy products.",
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AB - The compound S-equol (4',7-dihydroxy-isoflavandiol), a gut bacterial metabolite of isoflavone daidzein, benefits health, but only 20-60% of humans can produce equol after ingesting isoflavones, and it exists only in foods of animal origin in trace amounts. A recent study found a source of stinky tofu contained S-equol. As stinky tofu is a popular traditional fermented soy food in Taiwan, we analyzed S-equol contents of commercial samples, surveyed the intake frequency, and investigated the bioavailability of S-equol by monitoring urinary kinetics following ingestion. Our results showed 91% of the 138 stinky tofu dishes contained S-equol. The mean content per serving (average 198. g) was 2.3±2.5 mg, the highest being 16.3. mg. Stinky tofu eaters on average ingested this food 3.3 times per month. S-equol from ingested stinky tofu appeared in urine within 1. h, reaching maximum excretion at 3.4. h, and 67% of the ingested S-equol was recovered in urine, indicating a rapid and high absorption. Our studies suggest stinky tofu can be a promising dietary source of S-equol for its high content and bioavailability. Further study on the S-equol producing bacteria in stinky tofu is merited for the development of other S-equol rich soy products.

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