Cosmologists build simulations for the evolution of the universe using different initial parameters. By exploring the datasets from different simulation runs, cosmologists can understand the evolution of our universe and approach its initial conditions. A cosmological simulation nowadays can generate datasets on the order of petabytes. Moving datasets from the supercomputers to post data analysis machines is infeasible. We propose a novel approach called statistical super-resolution to tackle the big data problem for cosmological data analysis and visualization. It uses datasets from a few simulation runs to create a prior knowledge, which captures the relation between low-and high-resolution data. We apply in situ statistical down-sampling to datasets generated from simulation runs to minimize the requirements of I/O bandwidth and storage. High-resolution datasets are reconstructed from the statistical down-sampled data by using the prior knowledge for scientists to perform advanced data analysis and render high-quality visualizations.