Social-Ecological Determinants of Elite Student Athletes’ Dual Career Development in Hong Kong and Taiwan

Raymond Kim Wai Sum*, Hsiu Hua Tsai, Amy Sau Ching Ha, Chih Fu Cheng, Fong Jia Wang, Minghui Li

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Previous research has encouraged a cultural specific framework to be developed through research in Asian countries, such as China, to help internationalize the findings and help athletes to adapt them to their society and culture. Based on a socioecological framework, this study investigated how social-ecological determinants affect elite student athletes’ (ESA) experience of the socialization process of dual career development in Hong Kong and Taiwan. We interviewed eight ESAs who trained at the national level, studying simultaneously at universities in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Grounded theory techniques and procedures were used to analyze the data. Results revealed that ESAs are affected by interrelated determinants at different levels: individual (career aims, identities, roles, characters, self-efficacy, and motivation), micro-level (coaches, teammates, parents, siblings, physical education [PE] teachers, other teachers, alumni, seniors, and classmates), meso-level (interrelations between individual and micro-level), exo-level (government, financial, policy, academic, medical, and parent–teacher association), macro-level (attitudes, norms, values, beliefs, resources, and culture), and chrono-level (transition).

Original languageEnglish
JournalSAGE Open
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2017 May 1


  • Hong Kong
  • Taiwan
  • career development
  • elite student athletes
  • social-ecological determinants

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Arts and Humanities
  • General Social Sciences


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