Semifragile hybrid watermarking method for image authentication

Greg C. Lee*, Fu Hao Yeh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


We propose an adaptive watermarking technique that is robust to JPEG compression and sensitive to malicious manipulations, including counterfeiting attacks. The watermarking technique includes three major functions: generating content-based watermarks, hybrid watermarking, and calibration. Two features, invariant to JPEG compression, used to generate content-based watermarks increase the resistance to counterfeiting attacks. The watermarks are embedded using various strategies, depending on the characteristics of discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients. Finally, two calibration functions are used to increase the accuracy of authentication. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed watermarking technique can blindly localize tampered areas, is robust to JPEG compression, and is sensitive to malicious manipulations, including counterfeiting attacks.

Original languageEnglish
Article number057002
JournalOptical Engineering
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2007 May


  • Digital watermaking
  • Image authentication
  • Semifragile watermaking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • General Engineering


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