Safety Assessment and Hepatic–Renal Protection of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Root and Its Soy Isoflavone Contents

Thuy Lan Thi Vo, Xiang Ming Cai, Jiunn Wang Liao, Liang Gie Huang, Chien Lin Chen, Chi Hao Wu*, Tuzz Ying Song*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., also known as pigeon pea, has roots that have exhibited much pharmacological potential. The present study was conducted to assess the safe dose of the ethanolic extract of C. cajan roots (EECR95) and to analyze the main soy isoflavones contents. In vitro, we investigated the mutagenicity and cytotoxic effect of EECR95 on Salmonella typhimurium-TA98 and TA100 (by Ames tests) and RAW 264.7, L-929, and HGF-1 cell lines (by MTT tests) for 24 h of incubation. We found no mutagenic or cytotoxic effects of EECR95. After administration of 0.2 or 1.0 g/kg bw of EECR95 to both male and female Wistar rats for 90 days, there were no significant adverse effects on the behaviors (body weight, water intake, and food intake), organ/tissue weights, or immunohistochemical staining, and the urine and hematological examinations of the rats were within normal ranges. EECR95 potentially decreases renal function markers in serum (serum uric acid, BUN, CRE, and GLU) or liver function markers (cholesterol, triglyceride, and glutamic-pyruvate-transaminase (GPT)). We also found that EECR95 contained five soy isoflavones (genistein, biochanin A, daidzein, genistin, and cajanol), which may be related to its hepatorenal protection. Based on the high dose (1.0 g/kg bw) of EECR95, a safe daily intake of EECR95 for human adults is estimated to be 972 mg/60 kg person/day.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3963
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Sept


  • Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. roots
  • genotoxicity
  • safe daily intake
  • safety assessment
  • soy isoflavones

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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