Relationships among constitution, stress, and discomfort in the first trimester

Shih Hsien Kuo*, Hsiao Ling Wang, Tzu Chi Lee, Fan Hao Chou, Li Li Chen, Yi Chang Su, Lih Mih Chen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to explore correlations among constitution, stress, and discomfort symptoms during the first trimester of pregnancy. We adopted a descriptive and correlational research design and collected data from 261 pregnant women during their first trimester in southern Taiwan using structured questionnaires. Results showed that (1) stress was significantly and positively correlated with Yang-Xu, Yin-Xu, and Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitutions, respectively; (2) Yin-Xu and Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitutions had significant correlations with all symptoms of discomfort, while Yang-Xu had significant correlations with all symptoms of discomfort except for running nose; (3) Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitution and stress were two indicators for fatigue; Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi was the indicator for nausea; Yang-Xu and Yin-Xu were indicators for frequent urination. Our findings also indicate that stress level affects constitutional changes and that stress and constitutional change affect the incidence of discomfort. This research can help healthcare professionals observe these discomforts and provide individualized care for pregnant women, to nurture pregnant women into neutral-type constitution, minimize their levels of discomfort, and promote the health of the fetus and the mother.

Original languageEnglish
Article number486757
JournalEvidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Complementary and alternative medicine


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