We investigate quantum nucleation of vortex string loops in the relativistic quantum field theory of a complex scalar field by using the Euclidean path integral. Our initial metastable homogeneous field configurations carry a spacelike current. The path integral is dominated by the O(3) symmetric bounce solution. The nucleation rate and the critical vortex loop size are obtained approximately. Gradually the initial current will be reduced to zero as the induced current inside vortex loops is opposite to the initial current. We also discuss a similar process in Maxwell-Higgs systems and possible physical implications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)