Psychosocial Costs of Racism to White Counselors: Predicting Various Dimensions of Multicultural Counseling Competence

Lisa B. Spanierman, V. Paul Poteat, Ying Fen Wang, Euna Oh

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64 Citations (Scopus)


In 2 interrelated investigations, the authors examined the extent to which affect, as measured by the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites scale (PCRW; L. B. Spanierman & M. J. Heppner, 2004), would predict various dimensions of multicultural counseling competence (MCC). In Study 1, structural equation modeling was used to test a mediating model of PCRW predicting self-reported MCC among a sample of White trainees (n = 311) from 34 states across the country. The overall model was a good fit to the data, with affective variables (e.g., White empathy, White guilt, and White fear) mediating the associations between color-blind racial attitudes and MCC and multicultural training and MCC. In Study 2, self-reported, demonstrated, and observed MCC were assessed among a sample of White trainees (n = 59; 40 of whose clinical supervisors participated) from 20 states. White guilt significantly predicted multicultural case conceptualization, and White empathy significantly predicted supervisor ratings of participants' MCC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-88
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Counseling Psychology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Jan 1



  • affective reactions to racism
  • multicultural counseling competence
  • psychosocial costs of racism to Whites
  • White guilt
  • White racial attitudes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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