Preparation of Fullerenes and Fullerene-Based Materials

Charles M. Lieber, Chia Chun Chen

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61 Citations (Scopus)


This chapter discusses the preparation, isolation, and characterization of fullerene clusters, and solids based on these clusters. Several techniques are used to prepare crude mixtures of fullerenes, and isolate and characterize pure C. Simple resistive vaporization of graphite rods could produce fullerenes in substantial yield. This procedure is often termed the Kratschmer–Huffman method and is a straightforward and low cost method for generating large quantities of fullerene-containing carbon soot. There are several experimental factors that can be varied to maximize the yield of fullerene clusters in the soot produced from the vaporization of graphite electrodes. These factors include the vaporization current density and helium partial pressure. A second, very useful and powerful technique for producing fullerene clusters involves laser ablation of graphite in a helium atmosphere. Several other techniques, including hydrocarbon combustion, low-pressure helium sputtering, electron beam evaporation, and inductively coupled RF evaporation of graphite targets have been used to prepare fullerene containing carbon products. The chapter also discusses several approaches for preparing isotopically substituted clusters. Finally, the chapter discusses the status and prospects of several new fullerene building blocks, including endohedral metal clusters and carbon nanotubes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)109-148
Number of pages40
JournalSolid State Physics - Advances in Research and Applications
Issue numberC
Publication statusPublished - 1994 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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