Preferred - Actual learning environment "spaces" and earth science outcomes in Taiwan

Chun Yen Chang*, Chien Hua Hsiao, James P. Barufaldi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


This study examines the possibilities of differential impacts on students' earth science learning outcomes between different preferred - actual learning environment spaces by using a newly developed ESCLEI (Earth Science Classroom Learning Environment Instrument). The instrument emphasizes three simultaneously important classroom components: content, method, and assessment with both student-centered and teacher-centered scales embedded. Findings suggest that preferred - actual space (PASmatch) between posttreatment perceptions and pretreatment preferences accounted for a more substantial and statistically significant amount of learning outcomes in terms of students' attitudes toward the subject matter with greater than large effect size, concerning practical significance in the actual earth science classroom. These findings suggest that earth science instruction in the secondary schools should bridge the gap between students' preferred/perceived learning environment with the aim to enhance their learning outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)420-433
Number of pages14
JournalScience Education
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2006 May

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • History and Philosophy of Science


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