Pre-training and cueing effects on students’ visual behavior and task outcomes in game-based learning

Meng Jung Tsai*, An Hsuan Wu, Ching Yeh Wang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This study aims to examine the effects of instructional designs with a pre-training video and real-time cues on game-based learning process and task outcomes. Forty-four university students from different disciplines were randomly assigned into four groups under a 2 x 2 experimental design (with/without a pre-training video versus more/less-relevant cues). The participants' visual behaviors during the learning processes of the four groups were all tracked by an eye-tracking system. MANOVA tests, lag sequential analyses and heat map analyses were analysed among and within groups. The results revealed that the cues had positive effects on game performance, and the pre-training video may enhance the visual control of information processing of cuing information. Nevertheless, neither a pre-training video nor real-time cues had benefits on students’ conceptual learning achievement in game-based learning.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100188
JournalComputers in Human Behavior Reports
Publication statusPublished - 2022 May


  • Game-based learning
  • Interactive pedagogy
  • Learning analytics
  • Scaffolding
  • Visual behavior

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)


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