Potential refugia in Taiwan revealed by the phylogeographical study of Castanopsis carlesii Hayata (Fagaceae)

Yu Pin Cheng, Shih Ying Hwang, Tsan Piao Lin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

98 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, we examined spatial patterns of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation in a total of 30 populations of Castanopsis carlesii Hayata (Fagaceae), a subtropical and temperate tree species, including 201 individuals sampled throughout Taiwan. By sequencing two cpDNA fragments using universal primers (the trnL intron and the trnV-trnM intergenic spacer), we found a total of 1663 bp and 21 polymorphic sites. These gave rise to a total of 28 cpDNA haplotypes. The level of differentiation among the populations studied was relatively high (G ST = 0.723). Two ancestral haplotypes are widely distributed. The Central Mountain Ridge (CMR) of Taiwan represents an insurmountable barrier to the east-west gene flow of C. carlesii. Among the populations studied, three separated populations, at Lienhuachih, Fushan and Lichia, have high nucleotide diversity. Estimates of N ST-G ST for populations on both sides of the CMR indicate that no phylogeographical structure exists. According to the genealogical tree, number of rare haplotype and population genetic divergence, this study suggests that two potential refugia existed during the last glaciation: the first refugium was located in a region to the north of Hsuehshan Range (HR) and west of the CMR; the second refugium was located in south, especially southeastern Taiwan. In fact, the second refugium happens to be the same as that reported for Quercus glauca. A 'star-like' genealogy is characteristic when all haplotypes rapidly coalesce and is a general outcome of population expansion. The neutrality test and mismatch distribution also suggest demographic expansion recovering from a bottleneck.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2075-2085
Number of pages11
JournalMolecular Ecology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Jun
Externally publishedYes


  • Castanopsis carlesii Hayata
  • Phylogeography
  • Refugium
  • Taiwan
  • cpDNA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Genetics


Dive into the research topics of 'Potential refugia in Taiwan revealed by the phylogeographical study of Castanopsis carlesii Hayata (Fagaceae)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this