Genetic variation evolves during postglacial range expansion of a species and is important for adapting to varied environmental conditions. It is crucial for the future survival of a species. We investigate the nuclear DNA sequence variation to provide evidence of postglacial range expansion of Musa basjoo var. formosana, a wild banana species, and test for adaptive evolution of amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) loci underlying local adaptation in association with environmental variables. Postglacial range expansion was suggested by phylogeographical analyses based on sequence variation of the second intron of copper zinc superoxide dismutase 2 gene. Two glacial refugia were inferred by the average F ST parameter (mean F ST of a population against the remaining populations). Using variation partitioning by redundancy analysis, we found a significant amount of explained AFLP variation attributed to environmental and spatially-structured environmental effects. By combining genome scan methods and multiple univariate logistic regression, four AFLP loci were found to be strongly associated with environmental variables, including temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, wet days, and surface coverage activity representing vegetation greenness. These environmental variables may have played various roles as ecological drivers for adaptive evolution of M. basjoo var. formosana during range expansion after the last glacial maximum.
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