Phylogeography of Kandelia candel in East Asiatic mangroves based on nucleotide variation of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs

T. Y. Chiang, Y. C. Chiang, Y. J. Chen, C. H. Chou, S. Havanond, T. N. Hong, S. Huang

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Abstract

Vivipary with precocious seedlings in mangrove plants was thought to be a hindrance to long-range dispersal. To examine the extent of seedling dispersal across oceans, we investigated the phylogeny and genetic structure among East Asiatic populations of Kandelia candel based on organelle DNAs. In total, three, 28 and seven haplotypes of the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) atpB-rbcL spacer, cpDNA trnL-trnF spacer, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were identified, respectively, from 202 individuals. Three data sets suggested consistent phylogenies recovering two differentiated lineages corresponding to geographical regions, i.e. northern South-China-Sea + East-China-Sea region and southern South-China-Sea region (Sarawak). Phylogenetically, the Sarawak population was closely related to the Ranong population of western Peninsula Malaysia instead of other South-China-Sea populations, indicating its possible origin from the Indian Ocean Rim. No geographical subdivision was detected within the northern geographical region. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed low levels of genetic differentiation between and within mainland and island populations (ΦCT = 0.015, ΦSC = 0.037), indicating conspicuous long-distance seedling dispersal across oceans. Significant linkage disequilibrium excluded the possibility of recurrent homoplasious mutations as the major force causing phylogenetic discrepancy between mtDNA and the trnL-trnF spacer within the northern region. Instead, relative ages of alleles contributed to non-random chlorotype-mitotype associations and tree inconsistency. Widespread distribution and random associations (χ2 = 0.822, P = 0.189) of eight hypothetical ancestral cytotypes indicated the panmixis of populations of the northern geographical region as a whole. In contrast, rare and recently evolved alleles were restricted to marginal populations, revealing some preferential directional migration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2697-2710
Number of pages14
JournalMolecular Ecology
Volume10
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2001 Dec 27

Fingerprint

Rhizophoraceae
Phylogeography
Chloroplast DNA
phylogeography
chloroplast DNA
Mitochondrial DNA
chloroplast
mitochondrial DNA
mangrove
geographical region
Oceans and Seas
Nucleotides
nucleotides
seedling
South China Sea
DNA
China
Malaysia
Population
Seedlings

Keywords

  • cpDNA
  • Kandelia candel
  • Locus association
  • Migration
  • Minimum spanning network
  • mtDNA
  • Phylogeography
  • Relative ages

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Genetics

Cite this

Phylogeography of Kandelia candel in East Asiatic mangroves based on nucleotide variation of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs. / Chiang, T. Y.; Chiang, Y. C.; Chen, Y. J.; Chou, C. H.; Havanond, S.; Hong, T. N.; Huang, S.

In: Molecular Ecology, Vol. 10, No. 11, 27.12.2001, p. 2697-2710.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chiang, T. Y. ; Chiang, Y. C. ; Chen, Y. J. ; Chou, C. H. ; Havanond, S. ; Hong, T. N. ; Huang, S. / Phylogeography of Kandelia candel in East Asiatic mangroves based on nucleotide variation of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs. In: Molecular Ecology. 2001 ; Vol. 10, No. 11. pp. 2697-2710.
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AU - Chou, C. H.

AU - Havanond, S.

AU - Hong, T. N.

AU - Huang, S.

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AB - Vivipary with precocious seedlings in mangrove plants was thought to be a hindrance to long-range dispersal. To examine the extent of seedling dispersal across oceans, we investigated the phylogeny and genetic structure among East Asiatic populations of Kandelia candel based on organelle DNAs. In total, three, 28 and seven haplotypes of the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) atpB-rbcL spacer, cpDNA trnL-trnF spacer, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were identified, respectively, from 202 individuals. Three data sets suggested consistent phylogenies recovering two differentiated lineages corresponding to geographical regions, i.e. northern South-China-Sea + East-China-Sea region and southern South-China-Sea region (Sarawak). Phylogenetically, the Sarawak population was closely related to the Ranong population of western Peninsula Malaysia instead of other South-China-Sea populations, indicating its possible origin from the Indian Ocean Rim. No geographical subdivision was detected within the northern geographical region. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed low levels of genetic differentiation between and within mainland and island populations (ΦCT = 0.015, ΦSC = 0.037), indicating conspicuous long-distance seedling dispersal across oceans. Significant linkage disequilibrium excluded the possibility of recurrent homoplasious mutations as the major force causing phylogenetic discrepancy between mtDNA and the trnL-trnF spacer within the northern region. Instead, relative ages of alleles contributed to non-random chlorotype-mitotype associations and tree inconsistency. Widespread distribution and random associations (χ2 = 0.822, P = 0.189) of eight hypothetical ancestral cytotypes indicated the panmixis of populations of the northern geographical region as a whole. In contrast, rare and recently evolved alleles were restricted to marginal populations, revealing some preferential directional migration.

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