Pharmacological Mechanism of NRICM101 for COVID-19 Treatments by Combined Network Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics

Sher Singh*, Ying Fei Yang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Symptom treatments for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and Long COVID are one of the most critical issues of the pandemic era. In light of the lack of standardized medications for treating COVID-19 symptoms, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has emerged as a potentially viable strategy based on numerous studies and clinical manifestations. Taiwan Chingguan Yihau (NRICM101), a TCM designed based on a medicinal formula with a long history of almost 500 years, has demonstrated its antiviral properties through clinical studies, yet the pharmacogenomic knowledge for this formula remains unclear. The molecular mechanism of NRICM101 was systematically analyzed by using exploratory bioinformatics and pharmacodynamics (PD) approaches. Results showed that there were 434 common interactions found between NRICM101 and COVID-19 related genes/proteins. For the network pharmacology of the NRICM101, the 434 common interacting genes/proteins had the highest associations with the interleukin (IL)-17 signaling pathway in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses. Moreover, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was found to have the highest association with the 30 most frequently curated NRICM101 chemicals. Disease analyses also revealed that the most relevant diseases with COVID-19 infections were pathology, followed by cancer, digestive system disease, and cardiovascular disease. The 30 most frequently curated human genes and 2 microRNAs identified in this study could also be used as molecular biomarkers or therapeutic options for COVID-19 treatments. In addition, dose–response profiles of NRICM101 doses and IL-6 or TNF-α expressions in cell cultures of murine alveolar macrophages were constructed to provide pharmacodynamic (PD) information of NRICM101. The prevalent use of NRICM101 for standardized treatments to attenuate common residual syndromes or chronic sequelae of COVID-19 were also revealed for post-pandemic future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number15385
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec


  • NRICM101
  • biomarker
  • pharmacodynamics
  • pharmacogenomics
  • protein–protein interaction
  • traditional Chinese medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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