Pharmacogenomic Landscape of Ivermectin and Selective Antioxidants: Exploring Gene Interplay in the Context of Long COVID

Ying Fei Yang, Sher Singh*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


COVID-19 pandemic has caused widespread panic and fear among the global population. As such, repurposing drugs are being used as viable therapeutic options due to the limited effective treatments for Long COVID symptoms. Ivermectin is one of the emerging repurposed drugs that has been shown effective to have antiviral effects in clinical trials. In addition, antioxidant compounds are also gaining attention due to their capabilities of reducing inflammation and severity of symptoms. Due to the absence of knowledge in pharmacogenomics and modes of actions in the human body for these compounds, this study aims to provide a pharmacogenomic profile for the combination of ivermectin and six selected antioxidants (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), curcumin, sesamin, anthocyanins, quercetin, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC)) as potentially effective regimens for long COVID symptoms. Results showed that there were 12 interacting genes found among the ivermectin, 6 antioxidants, and COVID-19. For network pharmacology, the 12 common interacting genes/proteins had the highest associations with Pertussis pathway, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, and colorectal cancer in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses. Disease analyses also revealed that the top three relevant diseases with COVID-19 infections were diabetes mellitus, ischemia, reperfusion injury. We also identified 6 potential target microRNAs (miRNAs) of the 12 commonly curated genes used as molecular biomarkers for COVID-19 treatments. The established pharmacogenomic network, disease analyses, and identified miRNAs could facilitate developments of effective regimens for chronic sequelae of COVID-19 especially in this post-pandemic era. However, further studies and clinical trials are needed to substantiate the effectiveness and dosages for COVID-19 treatments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number15471
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Oct


  • antioxidant compounds
  • disease analyses
  • ivermectin
  • long COVID
  • network pharmacology
  • pharmacogenomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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