Petrogenesis of the flood basalts from the Early Permian Panjal Traps, Kashmir, India: Geochemical evidence for shallow melting of the mantle

J. Gregory Shellnutt, Ghulam M. Bhat, Kuo Lung Wang, Michael E. Brookfield, Bor Ming Jahn, Jaroslav Dostal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Early Permian Panjal Traps of northern India represent a significant eruption of volcanic rocks which occurred during the opening of the Neotethys Ocean. Basaltic, basaltic-andesites, dacitic and rhyolitic rocks collected from Guryal Ravine and Pahalgam show evidence for subaerial and subaqueous eruptions indicating that they are contemporaneous with the formation of a shallow marine basin. The major and trace element geochemistry of the basalts is consistent with a within-plate setting and there are basalts which have high-Ti (TiO2>2.0wt.%) and low-Ti (TiO2<1.8wt.%) compositions. The 'high-Ti' basalts are similar to OIB whereas the 'low-Ti' basalts are similar to continental tholeiites. The identification of 'high- and low-Ti' basalts within the Panjal Traps is analogous to other large igneous provinces (e.g. Karoo, Deccan, Parana, Emeishan). The Sr-Nd isotopic values (εNd(T)=-5.3 to +1.3; ISr=0.70432 to 0.71168) of both types of basalts overlap indicating that the rocks may have originated from the same ancient subcontinental lithospheric (i.e. EMII-like) mantle source (TDM=~2000Ma). The two groups of basalts can be modeled by using a primitive mantle source and different degrees of partial melting where the high-Ti rocks are produced by ~1% partial melting of a spinel peridotite source whereas the low-Ti rocks are produced by ~8% partial melting. Trace elemental and isotope modeling indicates that some of the basalts assimilated≤10% crustal material. In contrast, the basaltic-andesites are likely formed by mixing between basaltic magmas and crustal melts which produced rocks with higher SiO2 (~55wt.%) content and enriched isotopic signatures (εNd(T)=-6.1; ISr=0.70992). The Panjal Trap volcanism was likely due to partial melting of the SCLM within a passive extensional setting related to the rifting of Cimmeria from Gondwana. Contemporaneous volcanic and plutonic granitic rocks throughout the Himalaya are probably not petrogenetically related but are likely part of the same regional tectonic regime.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-171
Number of pages13
JournalLithos
Volume204
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Sep 1

Fingerprint

flood basalt
petrogenesis
Permian
Melting
melting
basalt
mantle
Rocks
partial melting
rock
mantle source
andesite
volcanic eruption
Volcanic rocks
large igneous province
Time division multiplexing
Geochemistry
ocean island basalt
Trace Elements
plutonic rock

Keywords

  • Cimmeria
  • Continental flood basalts
  • Early Permian
  • Himalaya
  • Large igneous province
  • Pangaea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Cite this

Petrogenesis of the flood basalts from the Early Permian Panjal Traps, Kashmir, India : Geochemical evidence for shallow melting of the mantle. / Shellnutt, J. Gregory; Bhat, Ghulam M.; Wang, Kuo Lung; Brookfield, Michael E.; Jahn, Bor Ming; Dostal, Jaroslav.

In: Lithos, Vol. 204, 01.09.2014, p. 159-171.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shellnutt, J. Gregory ; Bhat, Ghulam M. ; Wang, Kuo Lung ; Brookfield, Michael E. ; Jahn, Bor Ming ; Dostal, Jaroslav. / Petrogenesis of the flood basalts from the Early Permian Panjal Traps, Kashmir, India : Geochemical evidence for shallow melting of the mantle. In: Lithos. 2014 ; Vol. 204. pp. 159-171.
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