Pectinesterase inhibitor from jelly-fig (Ficus awkeotsang makino) achenes reduces methanol content in carambola wine

James Swi Bea Wu, Ming Chang Wu, Chii Ming Jiang, Ya Ping Hwang, Szu Chuan Shen, Hung Min Chang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Crude pectinesterase (PE) inhibitor (PEI) extracted from jelly-fig achenes (JFA) (Ficus awakeosang Makino) was added to carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) puree to determine the change in methanol production during fermentation. Addition of pectin or microbial pectic enzyme to puree increased dose-dependently the methanol content in fermented products. Decreasing ratio (from 1:0 to 1:19, v:v) of pectic enzyme to diluted crude PEI solution in the puree-enzyme mixture decreased the PE activity remarkably. Except for transmittance (%T), addition of crude PEI to puree did not affect apparently the physical and chemical properties of wine; however, it reduced methanol content in the control from 256 to 58 ppm. The degree of esterification (DE) of pectin in starting puree was ∼70%. It decreased to ∼27% in the control group and reduced slightly to ∼67% in fermented puree with crude PEI added after 14 days of fermentation. This reveals that crude PEI solution was potent in inhibiting intrinsic carambola PE activity and appeared to be a potential alternative for methanol reduction in wines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9506-9511
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Nov 30
Externally publishedYes


  • Carambola wine
  • Jelly-fig achenes
  • Methanol
  • Pectinesterase inhibitor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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