On the (n, t)-antipodal Gray codes

Gerard J. Chang, Sen Peng Eu*, Chung Heng Yeh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


An n-bit Gray code is a circular listing of all 2n n-bit binary strings in which consecutive strings differ at exactly one bit. For n ≤ t ≤ 2n - 1, an (n, t)-antipodal Gray code is a Gray code in which the complement of any string appears t steps away from the string, clockwise or counterclockwise. Killian and Savage proved that an (n, n)-antipodal Gray code exists when n is a power of 2 or n = 3, and does not exist for n = 6 or odd n > 3. Motivated by these results, we prove that for odd n ≥ 3, an (n, t)-antipodal Gray code exists if and only if t = 2n - 1 - 1. For even n, we establish two recursive constructions for (n, t) codes from smaller (n, t). Consequently, various (n, t)-antipodal Gray codes are found for even n's. Examples are for t = 2n - 1 - 2k with k odd and 1 ≤ k ≤ n - 3 when n ≥ 4, for t = 2n - k when n ≥ 2 k with 1 ≤ k ≤ 3, for t = n when n = 2k ≥ 2 (an alternative proof for Killian and Savage's result) ...etc.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)82-90
Number of pages9
JournalTheoretical Computer Science
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Apr 20
Externally publishedYes


  • Antipodal
  • Complement
  • Gray code
  • Hamiltonian cycle
  • Period
  • n-cube

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • General Computer Science


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