Observable Emission Features of Black Hole GRMHD Jets on Event Horizon Scales

Hung Yi Pu, Kinwah Wu, Ziri Younsi, Keiichi Asada, Yosuke Mizuno, Masanori Nakamura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


The general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (GRMHD) formulation for black hole-powered jets naturally gives rise to a stagnation surface, where inflows and outflows along magnetic field lines that thread the black hole event horizon originate. We derive a conservative formulation for the transport of energetic electrons, which are initially injected at the stagnation surface and subsequently transported along flow streamlines. With this formulation the energy spectra evolution of the electrons along the flow in the presence of radiative and adiabatic cooling is determined. For flows regulated by synchrotron radiative losses and adiabatic cooling, the effective radio emission region is found to be finite, and geometrically it is more extended along the jet central axis. Moreover, the emission from regions adjacent to the stagnation surface is expected to be the most luminous as this is where the freshly injected energetic electrons are concentrated. An observable stagnation surface is thus a strong prediction of the GRMHD jet model with the prescribed non-thermal electron injection. Future millimeter/submillimeter (mm/sub-mm) very-long-baseline interferometric observations of supermassive black hole candidates, such as the one at the center of M87, can verify this GRMHD jet model and its associated non-thermal electron injection mechanism.

Original languageEnglish
Article number160
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Aug 20
Externally publishedYes


  • Galaxy: center
  • black hole physics
  • galaxies: individual (M87)
  • galaxies: jets
  • gravitation
  • radiation mechanisms: non-thermal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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